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- Pharmacology For Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + Bromhexine
Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + Bromhexine Pharmacology
Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineAbout Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AMechanism of Action of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/APharmacokinets of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AOnset of Action for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/ADuration of Action for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AHalf Life of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/ASide Effects of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AContra-indications of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AInteractions for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/ATypical Dosage for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/ASchedule of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AStorage Requirements for Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/AEffects of Overdose of Guaiphenesin + Cetirizine + Phenylephrine + BromhexineN/A
GuaiphenesinAbout GuaiphenesinPropanediol derivative, Expectorant.Mechanism of Action of GuaiphenesinGuaiphenesin is an expectorant which after absorption from the gastrointestinal tract secreted by tracheobronchial glands and directly increase bronchial secretion and mucosal ciliary action. It increases respiratory tract fluid by reducing adhesiveness and surface tension, reducing viscosity of the secretions and there by facilitating their removal and clears chest congestion.
Action in local vaginal preparations: Guaiphenesin helps to thin the thick or sticky cervical mucus.
Pharmacokinets of GuaiphenesinAbsorption: Well absorbed orally.Distribution: It is secreted by the tracheobronchial glands.
Metabolism: It is metabolized primarily to Beta-2-methoxyphenoxy-lactic acid. Excretion: It is excreted in the urine.
Onset of Action for GuaiphenesinN/ADuration of Action for GuaiphenesinN/AHalf Life of Guaiphenesin60 minutesSide Effects of Guaiphenesin1. Headache
8. Stomach pain
Contra-indications of Guaiphenesin1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Chronic or persistent cough associated with chronic lower respiratory tract diseases
5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Special Precautions while taking Guaiphenesin1. Porphyria
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Guaiphenesin1. Expectorant
2. Thick or sticky cervical mucus
Interactions for GuaiphenesinN/ATypical Dosage for GuaiphenesinOral :
Adults and children over 12 years: 100 to 400mg up to 6 times daily as required.Maximum dose: 2.4g/day
Children (age 6 to 11): 100 to 200mg up to 6 times daily as required.Maximum dose: 1.2g/day
Children (age 2 to 5): 50 to 100mg up to 6 times daily as required.Maximum dose: 600mg/day
Adults and children over 12 years: 600 to 1200mg twice daily. Not to exceed 2.4g in 24 hours
Children (age 6 to 12): 600mg twice daily. Not to exceed 1.2g in 24 hours
Children (age 2 to 6): 300mg twice daily. Not to exceed 600mg in 24 hours
Thick or sticky cervical mucus: 200mg 2 to 3 times daily from 4 days prior to ovulation and continue through ovulation day.
Schedule of GuaiphenesinN/AStorage Requirements for GuaiphenesinStore at a temperature below 30 degree C. Keep out of reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of GuaiphenesinTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of GuaiphenesinProvide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
CetirizineAbout CetirizineSecond Generation H1 Antagonist, Metabolite of hydroxyzine, Antihistamine.Mechanism of Action of CetirizineThis drug is a selective peripheral H1 receptor antagonist. Thus it inhibits the allergic symptoms produced by histamines like cold, rhinorrhea, sneezing, urticaria etc. The drug has some mast cell stabilizing properties. It also inhibit eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM through both dermal and lung micro vascular endothelial cells. So inhibit eosinophil chemotaxis and also inflammation caused by it.Pharmacokinets of CetirizineAbsorption- Well absorbed after oral administration
Distribution-Widely distributed in the body. 93% bound to the plasma proteins. It enters to the CNS in small amounts.
Metabolism-Metabolized in the liver to its metabolites by oxidative O-dealkylation
Excretion- Excreted through urine (50% as unchanged form) and a small amount through feces
Onset of Action for Cetirizine10-30 minDuration of Action for Cetirizine12-24hrsHalf Life of CetirizineIts plasma half life is 8.3 hrsSide Effects of Cetirizine1. Somnolence.
5. Dry mouth
6. CNS stimulation in children
10. Blurred vision
16. Excessive tiredness
19. Sore throat
20. Stomach pain
Contra-indications of CetirizineHypersensitivity to the drug or hydroxyzine.Special Precautions while taking Cetirizine1. Renal impairment.
2. Hepatic dysfunction.
4. Any work which require mental alertness like driving or machine operation.
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Cetirizine1. Sneezing
3. Postnasal discharge.
4. Common coughs
6. Chronic urticaria
8. Pruritic skin disorders
9. Hay fever
Interactions for CetirizineAlcohol: Avoid excessive alcohol consumption.Typical Dosage for CetirizineOral-
Adult - 10 mg daily, single dose
Children (6-12 years) -5 mg daily.
Schedule of CetirizineN/AStorage Requirements for CetirizineStore in cool, dry, dark placeEffects of Missed Dosage of CetirizineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of CetirizineGive symptomatic and supportive treatment.
PhenylephrineAbout PhenylephrineAn a1-adrenergic receptor agonist, Phenethylamine derivative, Decongestant, Antiglaucoma, Mydriatic.Mechanism of Action of PhenylephrineThe drug exerts it`s pharmacological action by acting as a selective alpha-1 adrenergic agonist. It causes vasoconstriction and increases total peripheral resistance and raises blood pressure. It reduces intraocular tension by constricting ciliary body blood vessels and produce mydriasis (without cycloplegia). It exerts nasal decongestant action; by vasoconstrictory action on arterioles of nasal mucosa. It prolongs and localizes the action of anaesthetics due to it`s vasoconstrictory action on skin, mucous membrane, and viscera and thus slows the rate of absorption of local anaesthetics.Pharmacokinets of PhenylephrineAbsorption: Variable depending up on the route of administration. Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver and intestine.Onset of Action for PhenylephrineNasal: Rapid
I.M.: Within 15 minutes
Duration of Action for PhenylephrineNasal: ? to 4 hours
Ophthalmic: 3 to 7 hours
I.V.: 15 to 20 minutes
I.M.: ? to 2 hours.
Half Life of PhenylephrineN/ASide Effects of Phenylephrine1.Bradycardia
6.Premature ventricular contractions
11.Brow ache(with ophthalmic form)
12.Burning or stinging in eye
14.Elevated intraocular pressure
16.Episodes of asthma
Contra-indications of Phenylephrine1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
3.Ventricular tachycardia and severe hypertension (Injected form)
4.Angle closure glaucoma and in those who wear soft contact lenses(ophthalmic form)
Special Precautions while taking Phenylephrine1.Coronary diseases
4.Partial heart block
8.Nasal and ophthalmic form use cautiously in type-1 diabetes mellitus
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
Below age 6:contraindicatedIndications for Phenylephrine1.Hypotension
2.Paroxysmal supra ventricular tachycardia
3.Maintain blood pressure during spinal and inhalation anaesthesia
4.Prolongation of spinal anaesthesia
Interactions for PhenylephrineMay interact with systemically administered MAOIs.Typical Dosage for PhenylephrineI.M. or S.C.: 2 to 5mg. Then if required; give doses up to 10mg.
Slow I.V. injection: 0.1 to 0.5mg. Then if required; repeat after 15 minutes.
I.V. infusion: Starts with 0.18mg/minute. Then adjust the dosage up to 0.03 to 0.06mg/minute based on patient`s response.
Nasal congestion: Apply 2 to 3 drops or 1 to 2 sprays of 0.25% to 1% solution instilled in each nostril.
Mydriasis (without cycloplegia): Instill 1 to 2drops 2.5% or 10% solution in eye. Repeated if required.
Prolongation of spinal anaesthesia: 2 to 5mg added to anaesthetic solution.
Schedule of PhenylephrineN/AStorage Requirements for PhenylephrineStore at controlled room temperature at range of 15 to 30 degree C. in a well closed container. Protect from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of PhenylephrineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of PhenylephrineDiscontinue the drug and give supportive and symptomatic treatment. Closely monitor vital signs. Use atropine sulfate to block reflex Bradycardia. Treat excessive hypertension with phentolamine. Treat cardiac arrhythmia with propranolol. Treat excessive mydriatic effect with levodopa.
BromhexineAbout BromhexineMucolytic (secretolytic)Mechanism of Action of BromhexineBromhexine hydrochloride acts as a mucokinetic and mucolytic agent. It decreases mucus viscosity by altering its structure. It depolymerises mucopolysaccharides directly as well as by liberating lysosomal enzymes and network of fibres in tenacious sputum is broken. It induces thin copious bronchial secretion.Pharmacokinets of BromhexineAbsorption: Bromhexine hydrochloride is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and bioavailability is about 20%. Distribution: It is widely distributed to body tissues in a highly protein bound form; Bromhexine crosses the blood brain barrier and small amounts cross the placenta, Metabolism: It undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver. Excretion: It is excreted primarily in the urine mainly as metabolites.Onset of Action for BromhexineN/ADuration of Action for BromhexineN/AHalf Life of Bromhexine12hours.Side Effects of Bromhexine1 Rhinorrhoea
4.Gastric irritation.Contra-indications of BromhexineHypersensitivity to the drug.Special Precautions while taking Bromhexine1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
3. Gastric and duodenal ulcer
4. Convulsive disorders
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Bromhexine1. As Expectorant and mucolytic
2. Conditions associated with production of viscid mucous
8. Asthmatic bronchitis
9. Mucous bronchiectasis
10.Chronic Pneumonia.Interactions for BromhexineN/ATypical Dosage for BromhexineOral: 8mg thrice daily.
Children (5 to 10 years): 4mg thrice daily
Children (1 to 5 years): 4mg twice daily.
Schedule of BromhexineHStorage Requirements for BromhexineStore in a cool dry place and protect from light. Keep out of reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of BromhexineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of BromhexineProvide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
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