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- Pharmacology For Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine Maleate
Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine Maleate Pharmacology
Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateAbout Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AMechanism of Action of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/APharmacokinets of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AOnset of Action for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ADuration of Action for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AHalf Life of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ASide Effects of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AContra-indications of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AInteractions for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ATypical Dosage for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ASchedule of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AStorage Requirements for Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AEffects of Overdose of Paracetamol + Codeine + Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/A
ParacetamolAbout ParacetamolAcetanilide derivative, Non narcotic Analgesic,Antipyretic.Mechanism of Action of ParacetamolParacetamol has analgesic and antipyretic action.
It is more active on cyclo-oxygenase enzyme in brain. Peripherally it is a poor inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.
Analgesic action: Paracetamol raises the pain threshold and produces analgesic effect.
Antipyretic action: Paracetamol lowers fever by direct action on the thermoregulatory centre in the Hypothalamus and block the effects of endogenous pyrogen.
Pharmacokinets of ParacetamolAbsorption: Paracetamol is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is distributed mostly in the body in unbound form.
Metabolism: It is extensively metabolised in the liver.
Excretion: Excreted in the urine.
Onset of Action for Paracetamol30 - 60 minutesDuration of Action for Paracetamol6 hoursHalf Life of Paracetamol1-4 hoursSide Effects of Paracetamol1. Nausea
2. Abdominal distress
3. Allergic reactions
Contra-indications of Paracetamol1. Hypersensitivity to ParacetamolSpecial Precautions while taking Paracetamol1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Contraindicated
Indications for Paracetamol1. To relieve pain and fever
2. Acute gout
Interactions for ParacetamolCholestyramine: Reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Charcoal: Activated, administered immediately reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Domperidone and metochlopramide: Enhance absorption of paracetamol.
Alcohol: Chronic excessive ingestion of alcohol potentiates hepatotoxicity of paracetamol.
Zidovudine: Effects zidovudine may be decreased.Typical Dosage for ParacetamolAdult:
500 - 1000 mg in 3 times daily
Maximum dose: 4 g / day
For migraine: 500 mg to be taken at the first sign of migraine attack and repeated 4 - 6 hourly until suppress mild attacks.
60 mg / kg body weight /day in 4 divided doses.
Schedule of ParacetamolHStorage Requirements for ParacetamolStore at 15-30 degree C in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of ParacetamolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of ParacetamolGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal. N-acetylcysteine is the specific antidote for Paracetamol poisoning. Dose: 150 mg /kg body weight as IV infusion over 15 minutes followed by same dose over 20 hours.
Maintenance dose: 75 mg / kg orally every 4 - 6 hours for 2 - 3 days. Haemodialysis can be done in emergency conditions.
CodeineAbout CodeineAn opiate, methylmorphine , Narcotic analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal.Mechanism of Action of CodeineCodeine exerts it`s action through opioid receptors and posses antitussive properties. It selectively and directly acts on cough centre and suppresses cough. It also posses analgesic action due to it`s agonistic action on opioid receptors.Pharmacokinets of CodeineAbsorption: Well absorbed after oral and parenteral administration. Distribution: Widely distributed in the body; it crosses placenta and also enters in to the breast milk. Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver by demethylation and glucuronide conjugation, Excretion: Excreted mainly in the urine as nor codeine and free and conjugated morphine.Onset of Action for CodeineOral: 30 to 45 minutes
I.M.: 10 to 30 minutes
S.C.: 10 to 30 minutes
Duration of Action for CodeineOral: 4 to 6 hours
I.V.: 4 to 6 hours
I.M.: 4 to 6 hours
S.C.: 4 to 6 hours
Half Life of CodeineN/ASide Effects of Codeine1. Constipation
5. Respiratory depression
11. Urine retention
15. Physical dependence.Contra-indications of Codeine1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Bronchial asthma
3. Increased intracranial pressure
4. Respiratory depression
5. Paralytic ileus
6. Head injury
9. Following bowel surgery.Special Precautions while taking Codeine1. Renal impairment
2. Hepatic impairment
3. Increased CSF pressure
5. Addison`s disease
7. In deliberate individuals
8. Prostatic hypertrophy
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Codeine1. Nonproductive cough
2. Mild to moderate pain.Interactions for CodeineN/ATypical Dosage for CodeineAdults:
Nonproductive cough:10 to 20mg 4 times daily;Maximum dose: 120mg/day
Oral, S.C., I.M.:
Mild to moderate pain:15 to 60mg Orally, S.C., or I.M.;4 to 6 times daily as required by the patient.
Over 12 years: 10 to 20mg 4 times daily
Age 6 to 12: 5 to 10mg 4 times daily;Maximum dose: 60mg/day
Age 2 to 6: 1mg/kg/day as four equally divided doses and do not exceed 30mg in 24 hours.
Oral, S.C., I.M.:
Mild to moderate pain:0.5mg/kg orally every 4 to 6 hours or 0.5mg/kg S.C. or I.M.
Schedule of CodeineHStorage Requirements for CodeineStore at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C and protects from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of CodeineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of CodeineEstablish adequate respiratory exchange via a patent airway and ventilation as needed. Administer opioid antagonist Naloxone to reverse respiratory depression use repeatedly as required. (Naloxone shouldn`t be administered unless patient has clinically significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression.). If patient shows signs and symptoms within 2 hours of ingestion empty the stomach by gastric lavage and induced emesis. Reduce absorption by administration of activated charcoal. Closely monitor vital parameters and correct fluid and electrolyte balance. Provide symptomatic and supportive treatment.
Chlorpheniramine MaleateAbout Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AMechanism of Action of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/APharmacokinets of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AOnset of Action for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ADuration of Action for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AHalf Life of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ASide Effects of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AContra-indications of Chlorpheniramine MaleateFirst Generation alkylamine H1 Antagonist, Antihistamine.Special Precautions while taking Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AInteractions for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ATypical Dosage for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/ASchedule of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AStorage Requirements for Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/AEffects of Overdose of Chlorpheniramine MaleateN/A
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