Azathioprine Pharmacology


About Azathioprine
Mechanism of Action of Azathioprine
Drug causes a greater suppression of delayed hypersensitivity and cellular cytotoxicity. Drug also antagonizes purine metabolism (necessary for proliferation of cells especially for leukocytes and lymphocytes) and may inhibit the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins. It may also inhibit the cellular metabolism and inhibit mitosis.
Pharmacokinets of Azathioprine
Absorption - Well absorbed after oral administration
Distribution- Drug and its active metabolite widely distributed in the body.30% bound to the plasma proteins. Drug and its active metabolite cross the placental barrier.
Metabolism- Metabolized to its active forms in the blood and then to inactive form in liver (by xanthine Oxydase enzyme) and erythrocytes .Mercaptopurine and 6-thioinosinic acid is its active metabolites.
Excretion- It is excreted through urine (as parent form and metabolites) and bile.
Onset of Action for Azathioprine
4-8 weeks
Duration of Action for Azathioprine
Half Life of Azathioprine
Its plasma half life is 5 hours
Side Effects of Azathioprine
1. Nausea
2. Vomiting
3. lowered resistance to infection
4. Bruising or unusual bleeding
5. Anemia
6. Weakness
7. sore in mouth
8. Taste changes
9. Diarrhea
10. Loss of appetite
11. Visual changes
12. Black, tarry stools
13. Blood in urine or in stool
14. Cough or hoarseness
15. Fever
16. Chills
17. Lower back or side pain
18. Painful or difficult urination
19. Pinpoint red spot on skin
20. Slurred speech
21. Swelling on leg or lower leg
22. Shortness of breath
23. Bloody vomiting
24. Thinned or brittle hair
25. Mouth blistering
26. Thrombocytopenia
27. Leucopenia
28. Coma
29. Seizures
30. Pancytopenia
31. Agranulocytosis
32. Aplastic anemia
33. Myalgia
34. Hypocalcaemia
35. Alopecia
Contra-indications of Azathioprine
Contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients
Special Precautions while taking Azathioprine
1. Renal impairment
2. Hepatic dysfunction
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution.
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution.
Indications for Azathioprine
1. Ulcerative colitis
2. To prevent rejection of kidney transplants
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Crohn`s disease
5. Cirrhosis
6. Dermatomyositis
7. Hepatitis C
8. Lupus erythematosus
9. Myasthenia gravis
10. Myopathy
11. Nephritic syndrome
12. Pemphigoid
13. Pemphigus
14. Atopic dermatitis
15. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa
16. Cutaneous vasculitis
17. Immune mediated hemolytic anemia
18. Immune mediated platelet destruction
Interactions for Azathioprine
Typical Dosage for Azathioprine
To prevent rejection of kidney transplants: 3-5mg/kg/day beginning on 1st day to 3rd days before transplantation. Maintenance dose is 1-3mg/kg/day
Children- Same as adult
Rheumatoid arthritis
1mg/kg as a single dose or in divided doses-
Schedule of Azathioprine
Storage Requirements for Azathioprine
Stored in a tightly closed container at room temperature. Protect from light and excessive heat. Keep out of reach of children
Effects of Missed Dosage of Azathioprine
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Azathioprine
Give symptomatic and supportive treatment. If needed treated with blood products

Home Delivery for Azathioprine in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including azathioprine.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for azathioprine and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for azathioprine may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take azathioprine only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for azathioprine before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for azathioprine with the pharmacy.

Azathioprine is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for azathioprine might be better known than azathioprine itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have azathioprine in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for azathioprine.