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Calcium + Calcitriol + Zinc Pharmacology
Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincAbout Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AMechanism of Action of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/APharmacokinets of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AOnset of Action for Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/ADuration of Action for Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AHalf Life of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/ASide Effects of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AContra-indications of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/APregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Calcium + Calcitriol + Zinc1.Post-menopausal osteoporosis.
4.Osteoporosis in males
Interactions for Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/ATypical Dosage for Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincAdult: 1 capsule / day and if needed dose can be increased by 1 capsule every 2 weekSchedule of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AStorage Requirements for Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/AEffects of Overdose of Calcium + Calcitriol + ZincN/A
CalciumAbout CalciumCalcium is necessary for cardiac function, muscle contraction, nervous activity, coagulation of blood and for maintaining structural integrity of cell membranes.
Plasma concentration of calcium is kept in normal range by three endocrine factors which control metabolism of calcium. These are (a) Parathyroid hormone, (b) Calcitonin, (c) Vitamin D. Calcium in plasma is bound to albumin, is complexed with anions (e.g. phosphate) and as diffusible ionic calcium. The physiological effects are exerted by ionic calcium. The predominant source of calcium is dairy products and the daily intake varies from 200 - 2500 mg. Adequate calcium intake is particularly important during periods of bone growth in childhood and adolescence and during pregnancy and lactation.
Patients with advanced renal insufficiency exhibit phosphate retention and some degree of hyperphosphataemia. The retention of phosphate plays a pivotal role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with osteodystrophy and soft tissue calcification. Calcium acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form insoluble calcium phosphate which is excreted in the faeces.
Deficiency signs and symptoms: Osteoporosis, pathological fractures, brittle nails and hair.Mechanism of Action of CalciumCalcium is essential for maintaining the functional integrity of nervous, muscular, and skeletal system. It controls excitability of nerves and muscles and regulates permeability of cell membrane. It also regulates cell adhesion and maintains integrity of cell membrane. Calcium acts as intracellular messenger for hormones, autacoids, and transmitters. It is required for excitation-contraction coupling in all types of muscle and excitation-secretion coupling in exocrine and endocrine glands. It is essential for release of transmitters from nerve endings and other release reactions. It is also essential for impulse generation in heart and determines level of automaticity and
A-V conduction. Calcium is also required for blood-coagulation.
Pharmacokinets of CalciumAbsorption: Actively absorbed from gastrointestinal tract in an ionized form; and vitamin D in it`s active form is required for calcium absorption, Distribution: Distributed mainly in to skeletal tissue (99%) and 1% is distributed equally between the intracellular and extra cellular fluid. CSF levels are about half of the serum calcium levels, Metabolism: Not significantly metabolized in the body, Excretion: Excreted mainly through faeces and a small amount is excreted through urine.Onset of Action for CalciumN/ADuration of Action for CalciumN/AHalf Life of CalciumN/ASide Effects of Calcium1.Constipation
Contra-indications of Calcium1.Renal calculi
Special Precautions while taking Calcium1.Renal impairment
7.End stage renal failure
10.Prolonged use of therapeutic amounts.
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Calcium1.Hypocalcaemia
2.Calcium and vitamin D deficiency
3.Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and lactation
5.Prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
6.Chronic renal failure.
Interactions for CalciumN/ATypical Dosage for CalciumOral: 500mg to 2g daily in two to four divided doses.
Adults: 1g daily. Increases to 2g daily if required.
Prevention of osteoporosis: 1 to 1.5g daily.
Children: 45 to 65mg/kg daily.
Neonates: 50 to 150mg/kg and should not exceed 1g.
Schedule of CalciumN/AStorage Requirements for CalciumStore in a well closed container in a cool and dry place. Protect from light.
Effects of Missed Dosage of CalciumTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of CalciumRemove calcium from stomach by induced emesis and gastric lavage. Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
CalcitriolAbout CalcitriolN/AMechanism of Action of CalcitriolCalcitriol is a 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or a Vitamin D analogue. It increases the absorption of Calcium from intestine by forming a calcium binding protein. It reverses the signs of rickets and osteomalacia.Pharmacokinets of CalcitriolAbsorption: It is readily absorbed after oral administration. Distribution: It is widely distributed in protein bound form. Metabolism: It undergoes metabolism in the liver and kidney. Excretion: It is excreted mainly in the faeces.Onset of Action for Calcitriol2 - 6 hoursDuration of Action for Calcitriol3 - 5 daysHalf Life of Calcitriol3 - 8 hoursSide Effects of Calcitriol1. Nausea
8. Bone and muscle pain
10. Weight loss
12. Metallic taste
14. Dry mouth
Contra-indications of Calcitriol1. Hypercalcaemia
2. Metastatic calcification
3. Plasma phosphorus level greater than 6 mg/dl
Special Precautions while taking Calcitriol1.Liver impairment
3.Monitor plasma calcium and creatinine in patients receiving high doses
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Calcitriol1.Management of Hypocalcaemia
2.Management of hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidismInteractions for CalcitriolN/ATypical Dosage for CalcitriolAdult:
Management of hypocalcaemia:0.25mcg/day.Dosage can be increased by 0.25mcg/day at 1 - 2 month interval.Maintenance dose:0.25 - 1 mcg/ day.
Management of hypoparathyroidism and psedohypothyroidism:0.25mcg/day in the morning and dosage can be incresed at 2 - 4 week intervals.Maintenance dose: 0.5 - 2 mcg/day
Children:above 6 years:same as adult dose
Children 1 - 5 years: 0.25 - 0.75mcg/day Schedule of CalcitriolN/AStorage Requirements for CalcitriolStore in a well closed container.Protect from heat,light and moisture.Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of CalcitriolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Do not double the dose.Continue the regular schedule.Effects of Overdose of CalcitriolGive supportive mesures and symptomatic treatment.
ZincAbout ZincTrance metal, Dietary mineral, Nutritional supplement,Treatment of zinc deficiency,in wound healing.Mechanism of Action of ZincZinc acts as a cofactor for more than 70 different enzymes. Zinc dependent enzymes are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Zinc facilitates wound healing, normal growth rates, normal skin hydration and maintains senses of taste and smell. It provides normal growth and tissue repair. It also helps in development of cell mediated immunity.Pharmacokinets of ZincAbsorption: Poorly absorbed orally, Distribution: Zinc is distributed mainly in to skeletal muscle, skin, bone, pancreas, kidney, liver, retina, prostate, RBC, and WBC. Excretion: Excreted mainly through intestine; only 2% loss in the urine.Onset of Action for ZincN/ADuration of Action for ZincN/AHalf Life of ZincN/ASide Effects of Zinc1. Nausea
3. Abdominal distress
4. Gastric ulceration
Contra-indications of ZincN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Zinc1.Don`t exceed prescribed dose
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Zinc1. Zinc deficiency
2. Acne vulgaris
3. Chronic skin ulcers
4. Adjunct to antimicrobials
5. Delayed wound healing
Interactions for ZincFluoroquinolones, Tetracyclines: Decreased GI absorption and serum levels of some fluoroquinolone.
Pencillamine: Reduced absorption of zinc.
Iron: Reduced absorption of iron and vice versa.
Typical Dosage for ZincAdults: 25 to 50mg zinc daily or 1 to 2 tablets daily.
Children: 5mg/kg 1 to 3 times daily.
Schedule of ZincN/AStorage Requirements for ZincStore at a temperature below 30 degree CEffects of Missed Dosage of ZincTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of ZincProvide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures
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