Metronidazole + Norfloxacin Pharmacology

Metronidazole + Norfloxacin

About Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Mechanism of Action of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Pharmacokinets of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Onset of Action for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Duration of Action for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Half Life of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Side Effects of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Contra-indications of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Special Precautions while taking Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Indications for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Interactions for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Typical Dosage for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Schedule of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Storage Requirements for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Effects of Missed Dosage of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin
Effects of Overdose of Metronidazole + Norfloxacin


About Metronidazole
A nitroimidazole antibiotic, Anti-infective, Antiprotozoal,amebicide.
Mechanism of Action of Metronidazole
Metronidazole is nitro imidazoles which have broad spectrum cidal activity against Protozoa and some anaerobic bacteria. Its selective toxicity to anaerobic microbes involves 1. Drug enters the cell by diffusion, 2. Nitro group of drug is reduced by redox proteins present only in anaerobic organisms to reactive nitro radical which exerts cytotoxic action by damaging DNA and other critical biomolecules. 3. DNA helix destabilization & strand breakage has been observed.
Pharmacokinets of Metronidazole
Absorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed,
Metabolism: Metabolized in liver by oxidation & glucuronide conjugation, Excretion: Excreted in urine.
Onset of Action for Metronidazole
1 to 2 days
Duration of Action for Metronidazole
Half Life of Metronidazole
8 hours.
Side Effects of Metronidazole
2.Metallic taste
7.Looseness of stool.
8.Peripheral neuropathy &CNS effects.
11.Transient leucopenia
12.Dry mouth
13.Abdominal distress
16.Thrombophlebitis at site of injection
Contra-indications of Metronidazole
1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
2.Blood dyscrasias
3.CNS disorders
Special Precautions while taking Metronidazole
1.Renal impairment
2.Hepatic impairment
3.Alcoholic cirrhosis
4.Use cautiously along with other hepatotoxic drugs & In visual field changes
Pregnancy Related Information
Use with caution
First trimester:contra indicated
Old Age Related Information
May be used.
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Neonates: Contraindicated
Indications for Metronidazole
3.Trichomonas vaginitis
4.Pseudo membranous enterocolitis
5.Anaerobic bacterial infections after surgery, Brain abscess, & Endocarditis
6.Helicobacter pylori infections
7.Ulcerative gingivitis
Interactions for Metronidazole
Warfarin & other coumarin anticoagulants: Potentiates the anticoagulant effect resulting in increased prothrombin time.
Alcohol: A disulfiram-like reaction. Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache & flushing.
Disulfiram: Acute psychotic reaction or confusional state.
Phenobarbital & Phenytoin: Increased metabolism of metronidazole resulting in decreased efficacy.
Lithium: Increased lithium levels and toxicity.
Flurouracil: Increased toxicity of flurouracil.
Lab tests: May interfere with chemical analysis for AST,SGOT, ALT, SGPT, LDH, triglycerides and hexokinase glucose. Zero values may occur.
Typical Dosage for Metronidazole
Amoebiasis:400 to 800 mg 8hourly for 5 to 10days depending up on the severity of infection
In severe infections and liver abscess: 1gm as slow I.V. infusion followed by 0.5 gm twice daily till oral therapy is started
Giardiasis:200mg 8hourly for 1week or 2gm/day for 3days or I.V.500mg thrice daily
Trichomonas vaginitis: 400mg 8 hourly for a week or 2gm once daily for a week.
Male partner should be concurrently treated with the drug
Pseudo membranous enterocolitis:800 mg 8hourly
Anaerobic bacterial infections after surgery, Brain abscess, & Endocarditis:400 to 800 mg 8hourly
In severe cases: 15mg/kg I.V. infusion for 1hour followed by 7.5mg/kg 4 times daily till oral therapy is substituted
Helicobacter pylori infections:400mg 8hourly along with amoxicillin/clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor
Ulcerative gingivitis:200 to 800mg 8hourly
Amoebiasis: 30 to 50mg/kg/day for 5to10 days.
Giardiasis:10 to 15mg/kg/day thrice daily
Children (below 12years): 7.5mg/kg I.V.
Schedule of Metronidazole
Storage Requirements for Metronidazole
Store in a well closed container in a cool dark place. Keep out of the reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Metronidazole
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Metronidazole
Treatment is supportive & symptomatic. Drug is removed by induced emesis, gastric lavage, and administration of activated charcoal & use of cathartics. For controlling seizures diazepam & phenytoin may be used.


About Norfloxacin
A synthetic second generation synthetic fluoroquinolone (quinolone), Broad spectrum Antibiotic.
Mechanism of Action of Norfloxacin
Norfloxacin is a bacteriostatic at low concentration and bactericidal at high concentration. It act by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase (Topoisomerase 2) and Topoisomerase 4.DNA gyrase helps in the formation of a highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA by its nicking and closing activity and also by introducing negative supercoil in to the DNA double helix. Norfloxacin inhibits DNA gyrase which results in abnormal linkage between opened DNA and gyrase and negative supercoiling is impaired. This will inhibits transcription of DNA in to RNA and subsequent protein synthesis.
Pharmacokinets of Norfloxacin
Absorption: About 30 - 40 % of the drug is absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is distributed in the body.
Metabolism: It undergoes hepatic metabolism.
Excretion: Drug is excreted mainly through urine and also through faeces.
Onset of Action for Norfloxacin
0.5 - 1 hours
Duration of Action for Norfloxacin
8 - 12 hours
Half Life of Norfloxacin
3 - 4 hours
Side Effects of Norfloxacin
1. Nausea
2. Vomiting
3. Diarrhoea
4. Abdominal discomfort
5. Seizure
6. Dizziness
7. Depression
8. Headache
9. Rash
10. Confusion
11. Insomnia
12. Anorexia
13. Pruritis
14. Photosensitivity

Contra-indications of Norfloxacin
1. Hypersensitivity to Norfloxacin and other Fluoroquinolones
Special Precautions while taking Norfloxacin
1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
3. Epilepsy
4. Dehydration
5. Caution while driving the vehicle or operating machine or involved in any hazardous activities
6. Avoid exposure to sunlight.

Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
NEONATES: Contraindicated
Indications for Norfloxacin
1. Urinary tract infection
2. Gonorrhoea
3. Typhoid fever
4. Gastroenteritis
5. Prostatitis
6. Traveler`s diarrhoea

Interactions for Norfloxacin
Antineoplastic drugs: Decrease serum levels of norfloxacin.
Caffeine: Enhanced efficacy of caffeine.
Oral anticoagulants: Enhanced effects of anticoagulants.
Cyclosporine: Nephrotoxicity increased by norfloxacin.
Theophylline: Increased plasma levels of theophylline resulting in toxicity.
Typical Dosage for Norfloxacin
Adults: 400 mg twice daily.
UTI: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 3 - 21 days; Dose is determined on the basis of severity of the infection, type of infecting organism
Typhoid fever: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 2 weeks.
Gonorrhoea: 800 mg / day as a single dose
Prostatitis: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 4 weeks
Gastroenteritis: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 5 days.
Traveler`s diarrhoea: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for up to 3 days
Schedule of Norfloxacin
Storage Requirements for Norfloxacin
Store at 15 - 30 degree C in a tightly closed container
Effects of Missed Dosage of Norfloxacin
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.
Effects of Overdose of Norfloxacin
Give supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.

Home Delivery for Metronidazole + Norfloxacin in Your City

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Metronidazole + Norfloxacin is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for metronidazole + norfloxacin might be better known than metronidazole + norfloxacin itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have metronidazole + norfloxacin in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for metronidazole + norfloxacin.