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- Pharmacology For Tinidazole + Norfloxacin
Tinidazole + Norfloxacin Pharmacology
Tinidazole + NorfloxacinAbout Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AMechanism of Action of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/APharmacokinets of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AOnset of Action for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/ADuration of Action for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AHalf Life of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/ASide Effects of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AContra-indications of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AInteractions for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/ATypical Dosage for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/ASchedule of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AStorage Requirements for Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/AEffects of Overdose of Tinidazole + NorfloxacinN/A
TinidazoleAbout TinidazoleNitroimidazole antibiotic, Antibacterial, antiprotozoal.Mechanism of Action of TinidazoleTinidazole is nitro imidazole which has broad spectrum cidal activity against Protozoa and some anaerobic bacteria. Its selective toxicity to anaerobic microbes involves 1. Drug enters the cell by diffusion, 2. Nitro group of drug is reduced by redox proteins present only in anaerobic organisms to reactive nitro radical which excerts cytotoxic action by damaging DNA and other critical biomolecules. 3. .DNA helix destabilization &strand breakage has been observed.Pharmacokinets of TinidazoleAbsorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed,
Metabolism: Metabolized in liver by oxidation &glucuronide conjugation, Excretion: Excreted in urine.
Onset of Action for TinidazoleWithin few hoursDuration of Action for Tinidazole16 hoursHalf Life of Tinidazole12 hoursSide Effects of Tinidazole1.Anorexia
15.Peripheral neuropathy & CNS effects,
Contra-indications of Tinidazole1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
Special Precautions while taking Tinidazole1.Hepatic impairment
3.Obstructive liver diseases
4. Use cautiously along with other hepatotoxic drugs & In visual field changes
5. Avoid alcohol use during therapy
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with caution, but contra indicated in first trimesterOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Tinidazole1.Amoebiasis
4.Anaerobic bacterial infections
5.Prophylactic agent after colorectal surgery
6.H. pylori infections
Interactions for TinidazoleAlcohol: Disulfiram like reaction.
Ampicillin, Doxycycline and Cotrimoxaole: Synergism with these agents.Typical Dosage for TinidazoleAmoebiasis:
Adults: 2gm once daily for 3 days
Children: 30 to 50mg/kg/day or 600mg 12hourly for 5 to 10 days
Trichomoniasis & Giardiasis:
600mg once daily for a week or 2gm single dose
Anaerobic bacterial infections:
2 gm followed by 500mg 12 hourly for 5 days
Prophylaxis after colorectal surgery:
2gm single dose before surgery
H. pylori infections:
0.5gm 12hourly for 7 to14 days in triple combination
Schedule of TinidazoleHStorage Requirements for TinidazoleStore at room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C. Protect from excess heat and moisture.Effects of Missed Dosage of TinidazoleTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of TinidazoleTreatment is supportive & symptomatic. Drug is removed by induced emesis, gastric lavage, and administration of activated charcoal &use of cathartics. For controlling seizures diazepam & phenytoin may be used
NorfloxacinAbout NorfloxacinA synthetic second generation synthetic fluoroquinolone (quinolone), Broad spectrum Antibiotic.Mechanism of Action of NorfloxacinNorfloxacin is a bacteriostatic at low concentration and bactericidal at high concentration. It act by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase (Topoisomerase 2) and Topoisomerase 4.DNA gyrase helps in the formation of a highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA by its nicking and closing activity and also by introducing negative supercoil in to the DNA double helix. Norfloxacin inhibits DNA gyrase which results in abnormal linkage between opened DNA and gyrase and negative supercoiling is impaired. This will inhibits transcription of DNA in to RNA and subsequent protein synthesis.
Pharmacokinets of NorfloxacinAbsorption: About 30 - 40 % of the drug is absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is distributed in the body.
Metabolism: It undergoes hepatic metabolism.
Excretion: Drug is excreted mainly through urine and also through faeces.
Onset of Action for Norfloxacin0.5 - 1 hoursDuration of Action for Norfloxacin8 - 12 hoursHalf Life of Norfloxacin3 - 4 hoursSide Effects of Norfloxacin1. Nausea
4. Abdominal discomfort
Contra-indications of Norfloxacin1. Hypersensitivity to Norfloxacin and other FluoroquinolonesSpecial Precautions while taking Norfloxacin1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
5. Caution while driving the vehicle or operating machine or involved in any hazardous activities
6. Avoid exposure to sunlight.
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContraindicated
Indications for Norfloxacin1. Urinary tract infection
3. Typhoid fever
6. Traveler`s diarrhoea
Interactions for NorfloxacinAntineoplastic drugs: Decrease serum levels of norfloxacin.
Caffeine: Enhanced efficacy of caffeine.
Oral anticoagulants: Enhanced effects of anticoagulants.
Cyclosporine: Nephrotoxicity increased by norfloxacin.
Theophylline: Increased plasma levels of theophylline resulting in toxicity.Typical Dosage for NorfloxacinAdults: 400 mg twice daily.
UTI: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 3 - 21 days; Dose is determined on the basis of severity of the infection, type of infecting organism
Typhoid fever: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 2 weeks.
Gonorrhoea: 800 mg / day as a single dose
Prostatitis: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 4 weeks
Gastroenteritis: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 5 days.
Traveler`s diarrhoea: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for up to 3 days
Schedule of NorfloxacinHStorage Requirements for NorfloxacinStore at 15 - 30 degree C in a tightly closed containerEffects of Missed Dosage of NorfloxacinTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Effects of Overdose of NorfloxacinGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.
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