Metronidazole + Ofloxacin Pharmacology

Metronidazole + Ofloxacin

About Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Mechanism of Action of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Pharmacokinets of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Onset of Action for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Duration of Action for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Half Life of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Side Effects of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Contra-indications of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Special Precautions while taking Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Indications for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Interactions for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Typical Dosage for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Schedule of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Storage Requirements for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Effects of Missed Dosage of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin
Effects of Overdose of Metronidazole + Ofloxacin


About Metronidazole
A nitroimidazole antibiotic, Anti-infective, Antiprotozoal,amebicide.
Mechanism of Action of Metronidazole
Metronidazole is nitro imidazoles which have broad spectrum cidal activity against Protozoa and some anaerobic bacteria. Its selective toxicity to anaerobic microbes involves 1. Drug enters the cell by diffusion, 2. Nitro group of drug is reduced by redox proteins present only in anaerobic organisms to reactive nitro radical which exerts cytotoxic action by damaging DNA and other critical biomolecules. 3. DNA helix destabilization & strand breakage has been observed.
Pharmacokinets of Metronidazole
Absorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed,
Metabolism: Metabolized in liver by oxidation & glucuronide conjugation, Excretion: Excreted in urine.
Onset of Action for Metronidazole
1 to 2 days
Duration of Action for Metronidazole
Half Life of Metronidazole
8 hours.
Side Effects of Metronidazole
2.Metallic taste
7.Looseness of stool.
8.Peripheral neuropathy &CNS effects.
11.Transient leucopenia
12.Dry mouth
13.Abdominal distress
16.Thrombophlebitis at site of injection
Contra-indications of Metronidazole
1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
2.Blood dyscrasias
3.CNS disorders
Special Precautions while taking Metronidazole
1.Renal impairment
2.Hepatic impairment
3.Alcoholic cirrhosis
4.Use cautiously along with other hepatotoxic drugs & In visual field changes
Pregnancy Related Information
Use with caution
First trimester:contra indicated
Old Age Related Information
May be used.
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Neonates: Contraindicated
Indications for Metronidazole
3.Trichomonas vaginitis
4.Pseudo membranous enterocolitis
5.Anaerobic bacterial infections after surgery, Brain abscess, & Endocarditis
6.Helicobacter pylori infections
7.Ulcerative gingivitis
Interactions for Metronidazole
Warfarin & other coumarin anticoagulants: Potentiates the anticoagulant effect resulting in increased prothrombin time.
Alcohol: A disulfiram-like reaction. Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache & flushing.
Disulfiram: Acute psychotic reaction or confusional state.
Phenobarbital & Phenytoin: Increased metabolism of metronidazole resulting in decreased efficacy.
Lithium: Increased lithium levels and toxicity.
Flurouracil: Increased toxicity of flurouracil.
Lab tests: May interfere with chemical analysis for AST,SGOT, ALT, SGPT, LDH, triglycerides and hexokinase glucose. Zero values may occur.
Typical Dosage for Metronidazole
Amoebiasis:400 to 800 mg 8hourly for 5 to 10days depending up on the severity of infection
In severe infections and liver abscess: 1gm as slow I.V. infusion followed by 0.5 gm twice daily till oral therapy is started
Giardiasis:200mg 8hourly for 1week or 2gm/day for 3days or I.V.500mg thrice daily
Trichomonas vaginitis: 400mg 8 hourly for a week or 2gm once daily for a week.
Male partner should be concurrently treated with the drug
Pseudo membranous enterocolitis:800 mg 8hourly
Anaerobic bacterial infections after surgery, Brain abscess, & Endocarditis:400 to 800 mg 8hourly
In severe cases: 15mg/kg I.V. infusion for 1hour followed by 7.5mg/kg 4 times daily till oral therapy is substituted
Helicobacter pylori infections:400mg 8hourly along with amoxicillin/clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor
Ulcerative gingivitis:200 to 800mg 8hourly
Amoebiasis: 30 to 50mg/kg/day for 5to10 days.
Giardiasis:10 to 15mg/kg/day thrice daily
Children (below 12years): 7.5mg/kg I.V.
Schedule of Metronidazole
Storage Requirements for Metronidazole
Store in a well closed container in a cool dark place. Keep out of the reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Metronidazole
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Metronidazole
Treatment is supportive & symptomatic. Drug is removed by induced emesis, gastric lavage, and administration of activated charcoal & use of cathartics. For controlling seizures diazepam & phenytoin may be used.


About Ofloxacin
A second generation fluoroquinolone(quinolones), Antibiotic.
Mechanism of Action of Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin is a bactericidal drug. It act by inhibiting the enzyme DNA gyrase (Topoisomerase 2) and Topoisomerase 4.DNA gyrase helps in the formation of a highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA by its nicking and closing activity and also by introducing negative supercoil in to the DNA double helix. Ofloxacin inhibits DNA gyrase which results in abnormal linkage between opened DNA and gyrase and negative supercoiling is also impaired. This will inhibits transcription of DNA in to RNA and subsequent protein synthesis.
Pharmacokinets of Ofloxacin
Absorption: Ofloxacin is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is widely distributed in the body.
Metabolism: It undergoes insignificant metabolism.
Excretion: Drug is excreted mainly through urine.
Onset of Action for Ofloxacin
With in 0.5 hour
Duration of Action for Ofloxacin
12 - 16 hours
Half Life of Ofloxacin
5 - 8 hours
Side Effects of Ofloxacin
1. Nausea
2. Vomiting
3. Diarrhoea
4. Abdominal discomfort
5. Constipation
6. Dry mouth
7. Dizziness
8. Headache
9. Rash
10. Pruritis
11. Pseudomembranous colitis
12. Visual disturbances
13. Insomnia
Contra-indications of Ofloxacin
1. Hypersensitivity to Ofloxacin and other Fluoroquinolones
Special Precautions while taking Ofloxacin
1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
3. Cerebral arteriosclerosis
4. Epilepsy
5. CNS disease
6. Avoid exposure to sunlight
7. Caution while driving the vehicle or operating machine or involved in any hazardous activities.

Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
NEONATES : Contraindicated

Indications for Ofloxacin
1. Bronchitis
2. Pneumonia
3. Urinary tract infection
4. Bone and joint infections
5. Intra-abdominal infections
6. Gonorrhoea
7. ENT infections
8. Skin and soft tissue infections
9. Typhoid fever
10. Prostatis
11. Otitis
12. Gynaecological infections
13. Conjunctivitis
14. Keratitis
15. Urethritis
16. Cervicitis
Interactions for Ofloxacin
Oral Anticoagulants: The effects of oral anticoagulants, may be increased.
Theophylline: Increased plasma levels of theophylline resulting in toxicity.
NSAID`s: CNS excitation may occur.
Typical Dosage for Ofloxacin
Adults: 200 - 400 mg / day depending on the severity and type of infection
Bronchitis, Pneumonia, Skin and soft tissue infections: 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 10 days
Gonorrhoea: 400 mg as a single dose.
Prostatis, Cervicitis & Urethritis: 600 mg / day in 2 divided doses for 1 week.
UTI: 200 - 800 mg / day in single or divided doses
Typhoid fever: 400 - 800 mg / day in 2 divided doses

Schedule of Ofloxacin
Storage Requirements for Ofloxacin
Store at 15 - 30 degree C in a tightly closed container.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Ofloxacin
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.
Effects of Overdose of Ofloxacin
Give supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Gastric lavage has to be done.

Home Delivery for Metronidazole + Ofloxacin in Your City

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However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for metronidazole + ofloxacin and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for metronidazole + ofloxacin may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take metronidazole + ofloxacin only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for metronidazole + ofloxacin before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for metronidazole + ofloxacin with the pharmacy.

Metronidazole + Ofloxacin is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for metronidazole + ofloxacin might be better known than metronidazole + ofloxacin itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have metronidazole + ofloxacin in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for metronidazole + ofloxacin.