Tramadol Pharmacology


About Tramadol
A synthetic analogue of codein, Centrally acting Narcotic Analgesic.
Mechanism of Action of Tramadol
It is centrally acting synthetic drug. Chemically it is not related to the opiates but it act on the Opioid receptors present in the CNS. It has weak agonistic action on mu Opioid receptors, it cause analgesia. Part of this analgesic effect is due to the inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibition. However it has agonistic action on mu receptors, respiratory depression and gastrointestinal effects are not prominent.
Pharmacokinets of Tramadol
Absorption-Absorbed well after oral, intravenous and other parenteral application.
Distribution-Widely distributed in the body, about 20% bound to the plasma protein. It may cross the placenta.
Metabolism-It is metabolized in the liver by O-demethylation; N-demethylation, glucoronidation or sulfation to its metabolites. Mono-O-desmethylate is its active metabolite.
Excretion - Excreted 30% as unchanged form and 60% as its metabolites via urine.
Onset of Action for Tramadol
30 to 60 hrs
Duration of Action for Tramadol
8 to 12 hrs
Half Life of Tramadol
Side Effects of Tramadol
1. Dizziness
2. Weakness
3. Headache
4. Anxiety
5. Agitation
6. Drowsiness
7. Blurred vision
8. Stomach upset
9. Vomiting
10. Diarrhea
11. Constipation
12. Itching
13. Sweating
14. Flushing
15. Dry mouth
Contra-indications of Tramadol
1. Hypersensitivity to this drug
2. Acute alcoholic intoxification
3. Hypnotics
4. With centrally acting analgesics
5. With psychotropic drug
6. With Opioid drug
Special Precautions while taking Tramadol
1. Head injury
2. Acute abdominal conditions
3. Seizures
4. Respiratory depression
5. Renal failure
6. Hepatic failure
7. Physical dependence on Opioids
Pregnancy Related Information
May be used
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
May be used
Children Related Information
May be used
Indications for Tramadol
1. Post operative pain
2. Arthralgia
3. Musculoskeletal pain
4. Low back pain
5. Pain associated with other reasons
Interactions for Tramadol
Carbamazepine: A significant increase in Tramadol metabolism.
Hypnotics, Tranquilizers and other CNS depressants: Sedative effects potentiated.
MAOIs: Fatal interaction occurs.
Opioid analgesics like Buprenorphine, Butorphanol and Pentazocine: May precipitate withdrawl symptoms.
Tranquilizers: Analgesia potentiated.
Typical Dosage for Tramadol
Adults - 50 to 100mg every 4 to 6 hrs or twice daily.
50 to 100 mg given every 4 to 6 hrs.
100 mg suppository 4 times daily.
Schedule of Tramadol
Storage Requirements for Tramadol
Store at room temperature in a tightly closed container and away from heat & moisture. Keep out of reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Tramadol
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Tramadol
Establish artificial respiratory exchange. Naloxone administration cannot relieve all the symptoms produced by tramadol. Haemodialysis can remove a small fraction of drug from the body. Provide symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Home Delivery for Tramadol in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including tramadol.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for tramadol and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for tramadol may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take tramadol only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for tramadol before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for tramadol with the pharmacy.

Tramadol is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for tramadol might be better known than tramadol itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have tramadol in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for tramadol.