Metformin Pharmacology


About Metformin
Biguanide derivative, Oral anti-diabetic.
Mechanism of Action of Metformin
It is a biguanide which exerts antidiabetic action. The drug suppresses gluconeogenesis in liver and thus suppresses hepatic glucose output. It enhance insulin mediated glucose disposal in muscle and adipose tissue. It enhance GLUT1 (glucose transporter-1) transport from intracellular site to plasma membrane. It also interferes with respiratory chain in mitochondria and promotes peripheral glucose utilization by increasing anaerobic glycolysis. It inhibits intestinal absorption of glucose, other hexose sugars, amino acids and vitamin B12. It also improves lipid profile in type-2 diabetics.
Pharmacokinets of Metformin
Absorption: Absorbed orally and bioavailability is about 50% to60%. Distribution: It is distributed in to erythrocytes, Metabolism: Not metabolized in the body, Excretion: Excreted mainly through urine.
Onset of Action for Metformin
Duration of Action for Metformin
6 to 8 hours
Half Life of Metformin
1.5 to 3hours
Side Effects of Metformin
1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea
3. Vomiting
4. Anorexia
5. Metalic taste
6. Mild diarrhea
7. Tiredness
8. Small increase in blood lactate
9. Lactic acidosis (rare)
10. Vitamin B12 deficiency
11. Megaloblastic anaemia
12. Diarrhoea
13. Flatulence
14. Dermatitis
15. Rashes.
Contra-indications of Metformin
1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Renal impairment
3. Hepatic impairment
4. Diabetic ketoacidosis
5. Cardiovascular collapse
6. Hypotensive states
7. Respiratory disease
8. Alcoholics.
Special Precautions while taking Metformin
1. Alcohol intake can precipitate severe lactic acidosis
2. Vitamin B12deficiency
3. In malnourished and deliberate individuals
4. Adrenal insufficiency
5. Pituitary insufficiency.
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Indications for Metformin
Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (as adjunct to diet and exercise).
Interactions for Metformin
Typical Dosage for Metformin
Adults: Initial dose: 250mg twice or thrice daily with meals. Increase gradually at 2 week intervals, if required to a maximum of 3g daily.
Children: Not applicable.
Schedule of Metformin
Storage Requirements for Metformin
Store at room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C. in a well closed container.Keep out of reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Metformin
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose
Effects of Overdose of Metformin
Provide supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Remove accumulated drug from the body by haemodialysis.

Home Delivery for Metformin in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including metformin.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for metformin and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for metformin may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take metformin only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for metformin before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for metformin with the pharmacy.

Metformin is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for metformin might be better known than metformin itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have metformin in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for metformin.