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- Pharmacology For Dorzolamide + Timolol
Dorzolamide + Timolol Pharmacology
Dorzolamide + TimololAbout Dorzolamide + TimololN/AMechanism of Action of Dorzolamide + TimololN/APharmacokinets of Dorzolamide + TimololN/AOnset of Action for Dorzolamide + TimololN/ADuration of Action for Dorzolamide + TimololN/AHalf Life of Dorzolamide + TimololN/ASide Effects of Dorzolamide + TimololN/AContra-indications of Dorzolamide + TimololN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Dorzolamide + TimololN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Dorzolamide + TimololN/AInteractions for Dorzolamide + TimololN/ATypical Dosage for Dorzolamide + TimololN/ASchedule of Dorzolamide + TimololN/AStorage Requirements for Dorzolamide + TimololN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Dorzolamide + TimololN/AEffects of Overdose of Dorzolamide + TimololN/A
DorzolamideAbout DorzolamideCarbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Thiophene derivative, a sulfonamide, Antiglucoma.Mechanism of Action of DorzolamideDorzolamide is a sulfonamide used as topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase-2 in ciliary processes of eye leads to reducing intra ocular tension by decreasing aqueous humor secretion by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent decrease in sodium and fluid transport.Pharmacokinets of DorzolamideAfter topical administration drug reaches systemic circulation.
Distribution: It preferentially binds to carbonic anhydrase of red blood cells and about 33% of drug is protein bound.
Metabolism: Metabolized in to N-ethyl Dorzolamide.
Excretion: Excreted mainly through urine as unchanged drug as well as metabolite.
Onset of Action for DorzolamideN/ADuration of Action for DorzolamideN/AHalf Life of Dorzolamide4 monthsSide Effects of Dorzolamide1. Bitter taste
2. Ocular burning and stinging
4. Eye lid irritations
7. Blurred vision
12. Corneal Oedema
13. Hypersensitivity reactions
Contra-indications of Dorzolamide1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Renal impairment
3. Hyperchloremic acidosis
Special Precautions while taking Dorzolamide1. Hepatic impairment
2. Avoid use together with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
3. Discontinue the drug in hypersensitivity reactions
4. Stop the drug in corneal oedema, conjunctivitis, and eye lid reactions
5. Intraocular surgery
6. Corneal defects
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContraindicatedIndications for Dorzolamide1. Ocular hypertension
2. Open angle glaucoma
Interactions for DorzolamideSimilar to diuretics (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) ? as possibility of systemic absorption after topical administration.
Typical Dosage for DorzolamideOne drop of 2% solution three times daily. Schedule of DorzolamideN/AStorage Requirements for DorzolamideStore at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C.Effects of Missed Dosage of DorzolamideTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of DorzolamideTreatment is supportive and symptomatic. Monitor and support fluid and electrolyte balance. Correct blood acidotic state.
TimololAbout TimololNonselective Beta Adrenergic,Blocker,Ophthalmic- Antiglaucoma,antimigraine.Mechanism of Action of TimololTimolol is a non selective beta blocker. It inhibits the beta receptors (?2) present in the eye such as in the ciliary body epithelium and blood vessels. This will leads to decreased aqueous production and reduced intraocular pressure. Aqueous humor production is activated by ? receptor mediated cyclic AMP phosphokinase pathway. Beta receptor blockers will decreases the intracellular cyclic AMP level and reduces intraocular pressure. Another mechanism is that Timolol decreases the ocular blood flow which decreases ultrafiltration responsible for aqueous production.Pharmacokinets of TimololAbsorption: Absorption after ophthalmic use is minimal.Onset of Action for Timolol30 minutesDuration of Action for Timolol12- 24 hoursHalf Life of TimololN/ASide Effects of Timolol1. Irritation
4. Blurred vision
5. Increased sensitivity of the eyes to light
6. Redness of eyes
7. Discoloration of the eyeball
8. Eye pain
Contra-indications of Timolol1. Hypersensitivity to Timolol
2. Bronchial asthma
3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
4. Sinus Bradycardia
5. Heart failure
6. Cardiogenic shock
7. AV block (2nd or 3rd degree)
Special Precautions while taking Timolol1. Chronic bronchitis
3. Diabetes mellitus
5. Myasthenia gravis
6. Closed angle glaucoma
7. Gradually withdraw the drug in patient with Thyrotoxicosis
8. Cerebrovascular insufficiency
9. Avid use of soft contact lenses.
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationContraindicated
NEONATES: ContraindicatedIndications for Timolol1. Open angle glaucoma
2. Ocular hypertension
Interactions for TimololN/ATypical Dosage for TimololTimolol 0.25, and 0.5% eye drops are used.
Instill 1 drop in to the affected eye for 1 - 2 times daily.
Schedule of TimololHStorage Requirements for TimololStore in a cool dry place in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and light. Keep out of the reach of children. Discard the drug 1 month after opening.Effects of Missed Dosage of TimololTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of TimololA topical ocular overdose of an ophthalmic product containing Timolol may be flushed from the eye with warm tap water.
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