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- Pharmacology For Phenylephrine + Tropicamide
Phenylephrine + Tropicamide Pharmacology
Phenylephrine + TropicamideAbout Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AMechanism of Action of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/APharmacokinets of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AOnset of Action for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/ADuration of Action for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AHalf Life of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/ASide Effects of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AContra-indications of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AInteractions for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/ATypical Dosage for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/ASchedule of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AStorage Requirements for Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/AEffects of Overdose of Phenylephrine + TropicamideN/A
PhenylephrineAbout PhenylephrineAn a1-adrenergic receptor agonist, Phenethylamine derivative, Decongestant, Antiglaucoma, Mydriatic.Mechanism of Action of PhenylephrineThe drug exerts it`s pharmacological action by acting as a selective alpha-1 adrenergic agonist. It causes vasoconstriction and increases total peripheral resistance and raises blood pressure. It reduces intraocular tension by constricting ciliary body blood vessels and produce mydriasis (without cycloplegia). It exerts nasal decongestant action; by vasoconstrictory action on arterioles of nasal mucosa. It prolongs and localizes the action of anaesthetics due to it`s vasoconstrictory action on skin, mucous membrane, and viscera and thus slows the rate of absorption of local anaesthetics.Pharmacokinets of PhenylephrineAbsorption: Variable depending up on the route of administration. Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver and intestine.Onset of Action for PhenylephrineNasal: Rapid
I.M.: Within 15 minutes
Duration of Action for PhenylephrineNasal: ? to 4 hours
Ophthalmic: 3 to 7 hours
I.V.: 15 to 20 minutes
I.M.: ? to 2 hours.
Half Life of PhenylephrineN/ASide Effects of Phenylephrine1.Bradycardia
6.Premature ventricular contractions
11.Brow ache(with ophthalmic form)
12.Burning or stinging in eye
14.Elevated intraocular pressure
16.Episodes of asthma
Contra-indications of Phenylephrine1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
3.Ventricular tachycardia and severe hypertension (Injected form)
4.Angle closure glaucoma and in those who wear soft contact lenses(ophthalmic form)
Special Precautions while taking Phenylephrine1.Coronary diseases
4.Partial heart block
8.Nasal and ophthalmic form use cautiously in type-1 diabetes mellitus
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
Below age 6:contraindicatedIndications for Phenylephrine1.Hypotension
2.Paroxysmal supra ventricular tachycardia
3.Maintain blood pressure during spinal and inhalation anaesthesia
4.Prolongation of spinal anaesthesia
Interactions for PhenylephrineMay interact with systemically administered MAOIs.Typical Dosage for PhenylephrineI.M. or S.C.: 2 to 5mg. Then if required; give doses up to 10mg.
Slow I.V. injection: 0.1 to 0.5mg. Then if required; repeat after 15 minutes.
I.V. infusion: Starts with 0.18mg/minute. Then adjust the dosage up to 0.03 to 0.06mg/minute based on patient`s response.
Nasal congestion: Apply 2 to 3 drops or 1 to 2 sprays of 0.25% to 1% solution instilled in each nostril.
Mydriasis (without cycloplegia): Instill 1 to 2drops 2.5% or 10% solution in eye. Repeated if required.
Prolongation of spinal anaesthesia: 2 to 5mg added to anaesthetic solution.
Schedule of PhenylephrineN/AStorage Requirements for PhenylephrineStore at controlled room temperature at range of 15 to 30 degree C. in a well closed container. Protect from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of PhenylephrineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of PhenylephrineDiscontinue the drug and give supportive and symptomatic treatment. Closely monitor vital signs. Use atropine sulfate to block reflex Bradycardia. Treat excessive hypertension with phentolamine. Treat cardiac arrhythmia with propranolol. Treat excessive mydriatic effect with levodopa.
TropicamideAbout TropicamideAnticholinergic (muscarinic blocker), Ophthalmic Agent, Mydriatic, cycloplegic.Mechanism of Action of TropicamideTropicamide is a muscarinic receptor blocker. It nonselectively inhibits the muscarinic actions of Acetylcholine. Tropicamide blocks the muscarinic receptors in the muscles of the eye which are involved in controlling the pupil size and the shape of the lens. Tropicamide blocks the cholinergic nerves supplying the smooth muscles of iris and produces Mydriasis. It also causes paralysis of ciliary muscle and produces a tightening of the suspensory ligament and results in flattening of the lens and a consequent increase in focal length. Because of paralysis of muscle cannot constrict the pupils for viewing near object or prevents the eye from accommodating for near vision (Cycloplegia).
Tropicamide is given as eye drops to dilate the pupil and relax the lens so that eye examinations can be carried out thoroughly. It is often used to aid eye examinations in young children.
Pharmacokinets of TropicamideAbsorption: Tropicamide is readily absorbed after ophthalmic use.Onset of Action for Tropicamide15 - 30 minutesDuration of Action for Tropicamide3 - 8 hoursHalf Life of TropicamideN/ASide Effects of Tropicamide1. Photophobia
3. Contact dermatitis
9. Lacrimation (hyperemia)
10. Increased intraocular pressure
Contra-indications of Tropicamide1. Hypersensitivity to Tropicamide and other belladonna alkaloids
2. Aangle closure glaucoma
Special Precautions while taking Tropicamide1. Avoid the use of medicament if any allergic reactions occur
2. Any work that require good vision like driving vehicle, operating machine
3. Wear sun glasses
4. Raised intraocular pressure
5. Avoid use of soft contact lens
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Tropicamide1. Dilating the pupil to aid examination of the eye
2. Cycloplegic refraction
Interactions for TropicamideN/ATypical Dosage for TropicamideAdult and children
Tropicamide 0.5% and 1 % eye drops are available.
Eye drop: Instill 1-2 drop 15 - 20 minutes before procedure
Schedule of TropicamideN/AStorage Requirements for TropicamideStore in a cool dry place in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and light. Keep out of the reach of children. Discard the drug 1 month after opening.Effects of Missed Dosage of TropicamideInstill the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of TropicamideA topical ocular overdose of an ophthalmic product containing Tropicamide may be flushed from the eye with warm tap water.
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