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- Pharmacology For Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerate
Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerate Pharmacology
Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateAbout Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AMechanism of Action of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/APharmacokinets of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AOnset of Action for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/ADuration of Action for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AHalf Life of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/ASide Effects of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AContra-indications of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AInteractions for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/ATypical Dosage for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/ASchedule of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AStorage Requirements for Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/AEffects of Overdose of Miconazole + Gentamicin + Betamethasone valerateN/A
MiconazoleAbout MiconazoleAn imidazole derivative, Broad spectrum Antifungal.Mechanism of Action of MiconazoleMiconazole is fungicidal or fungistatic depending on the drug concentrations. I t inhibits the conversion of Lanosterol to 14 demethyl Lanosterol by inhibiting the cytochromeP450 enzyme 14 alpha demethylase and impair ergosterol synthesisPharmacokinets of MiconazoleAbsorption: Oral absorption of Miconazole is poor. Distribution: It is distributed in the body in protein bound form Metabolism: It undergoes metabolism in the liver. Excretion: It is excreted in urine and faeces.Onset of Action for MiconazoleN/ADuration of Action for MiconazoleN/AHalf Life of Miconazole1 daySide Effects of Miconazole1.Vulvovaginal burning
6.Dermatitis Contra-indications of Miconazole1.Hypersensitivity to Miconazole and other Azole antifungalsSpecial Precautions while taking Miconazole1.Hepatic dysfunctionPregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with caution
Indications for Miconazole1.Tinea versicolor
10.Diaper dermatitisInteractions for MiconazoleBenzoyl peroxide: Antibacterial synergism. Typical Dosage for MiconazoleAdult: Topical use:
Cutaneous infections: Apply the cream twice daily on the affected part for about 1 month
Tinea versicolor: Apply the cream once daily on the affected part
Vaginal use: Insert 300 mg suppository at bed time for 3 days or Insert 100 mg suppository at bed time for 7 days
Cutaneous infections: Apply the cream twice daily on the affected part for about 1 month
Tinea vericolor: Apply the cream once daily on the affected part
Schedule of MiconazoleHStorage Requirements for MiconazoleThe drug should be stored at 15 - 30 degree C.Effects of Missed Dosage of MiconazoleTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of MiconazoleGive supportive measures and treatment.
GentamicinAbout GentamicinAminoglycoside antibiotic.Mechanism of Action of GentamicinGentamicin exerts its bactericidal action against gram negative organisms & some of gram positive organisms by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. The process involves 1. Penetration of bacterial cell membrane & binding directly to the bacterial ribosome, 2. Misleading of m-RNA codon by bacterial ribosome, 3. Formation of peptide chains with wrong amino acid sequence which gets incorporated into bacterial cell membrane and alters its permeability, 4. Bacterial cell lysis. Some bacterial strains resistant to other amino glycosides are sensitive to Gentamicin.
Pharmacokinets of GentamicinAbsorption: Poorly absorbed orally
Distribution: Distributed extracellularly. CSF penetration & intraocular penetration poor.
Metabolism: Not metabolized
Excretion: Excreted mainly through urine.
Onset of Action for Gentamicin1 hour
Duration of Action for Gentamicin8 hoursHalf Life of Gentamicin2 hoursSide Effects of Gentamicin1. Vestibular damage & Ototoxicity
2. Allergic manifestations
Contra-indications of Gentamicin1. Hypersensitive to the drug or other amino glycosides
2. Along with chloramphenicol or tetracycline
3. Renal impairment
4. Labyrinthine disorders
Special Precautions while taking Gentamicin1. Renal impairment
2. Neuromuscular disorders
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with caution
Breast Feeding Related InformationContraindicated
Children Related InformationUse with caution
Infants : Use with caution
Indications for Gentamicin1. Infections caused by staphylococci, pseudomonas, proteous, klebsiella, enterobacter & serratia.
4. Urinary Tract Infections.
5. Otitis & Ocular infections.
6. Infections of burns & Skin ulcers
Interactions for GentamicinAmphotericin B, Cisplatin, Cephalosporin, Vancomycin, Methoxyflurane, Frusemide, Bumetanide: Increased nephrotoxicity.
Anaesthetics, Neuromuscular blocking agents (Tubocurarine): Risk of neuromuscular blockade and respiratory paralysis.
Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin: Exert antibiotic synergism, especially useful in Pseudomonas infections.
Loop diuretics: Concurrent use of these agents may increase the risk of respiratory paralysis and renal dysfunction.
Lab Tests: Aminoglycoside serum levels: Guard against in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by b-lactum antibiotics in patients on combination therapy.Typical Dosage for GentamicinDosage:
Adults: 2 to 5mg/kg/day; Thrice daily for a week or more
Children: 2 to 2.5mg/kg; Thrice daily.
Schedule of GentamicinHStorage Requirements for GentamicinStore below 30 degree Celsius and protect from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of GentamicinTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time to next dose then skip the missed dose.Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of GentamicinAn overdose results in ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular disorders & hypersensitivity manifestations.Treatment includes removal of drug by dialysis or by treatment with anticholinesterase like neostigmine and by administration of Ca , Prednisolone etc.
Betamethasone valerateAbout Betamethasone valerateIt is a topical steroid
Mechanism of Action of Betamethasone valerateThe drug exerts it`s pharmacological action by penetrating and binding to cytoplasmic receptor protein and causes a structural change in steroid receptor complex. This structural change allows it`s migration in to the nucleus and then binding to specific sites on the DNA which leads to transcription of specific m-RNA and which ultimately regulates protein synthesis. It exerts highly selective glucocorticoid action. It stimulates the enzymes needed to decrease the inflammatory response.
The drug exerts anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant actions as follows: - 1) Induce lipocortins in macrophages, endothelium, and fibroblasts which inhibits phospholipase A2 and thus decreases the production of Prostaglandins, leukotriens (LT), and platelet activating factor, 2) Causes negative regulation of genes for cytokines in macrophages, endothelial cells and lymphocytes and thus decreases the production of interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6), TNF-alpha, GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor), Gama interferon and suppresses fibroblast proliferation and T-lymphocyte functions and interferes chemotaxis. 3) Decreases the production of acute phase reactants from macrophages and endothelial cells and interferes complement function. 4) Decreases the production of ELAM-1(Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1) and ICAM-1(intracellular adhesion molecule-1) in endothelial cells. 5) Inhibit IgE mediated histamine and LT-C4 release from basophiles and the effects of antigen-antibody reaction is not mediated 6) Reduces the production of collagenase and stromolysin and thus prevents tissue destruction.
Pharmacokinets of Betamethasone valerateAbsorption: It is absorbed in to the systemic circulation and the amount is depending on the potency, amount applied and the nature of the skin at the site of application. Absorption increases at the site of skin damage, inflammation or occlusion.
Onset of Action for Betamethasone valerateN/ADuration of Action for Betamethasone valerateN/AHalf Life of Betamethasone valerateN/ASide Effects of Betamethasone valerate1.Thinning of the skin
2.Loss of elasticity
3.Increased hair growth
4.Acne at the site of application
Contra-indications of Betamethasone valerate1.Untreated bacterial, virus or fungal infections
6.Tuberculosis of the skin,
8.Skin lesions caused by infections with ring worm,. fungi (e.g. Candida, Tinea) or bacteria (e.g. impetigo)
9.Hypersensitivity to Betamethasone and other corticosteroids.
10.Discoid lupus Erythematosus
Special Precautions while taking Betamethasone valerate1.Avoid contact with eyes
2.For external use only
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES: contraindicatedIndications for Betamethasone valerate1.Psoriasis,
4.Lichen simplex and planus,
5.Anal and vulval Pruritis,
8.Steroidal responsive dermatoses of the scalp
Interactions for Betamethasone valerateN/ATypical Dosage for Betamethasone valerateTopical:
Betamethasone Valerate: Apply to the affected area as thin film 1 - 4 times daily depending upon the severity, skin and rate of absorption.
Dermatoses of the scalp: (Betamethasone Valerate 0.12%): Small amount of foam is applied in to the scalp with gentle massage 2 times a day for up to 2 weeks.
Schedule of Betamethasone valerateN/AStorage Requirements for Betamethasone valerateStore at room temperature in a well closed; light resistant container. Protect from excess heat and moisture. Keep out of reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of Betamethasone valerateApply the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Betamethasone valerateProvide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
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