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- Pharmacology For Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acid
Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acid Pharmacology
Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidAbout Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AMechanism of Action of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/APharmacokinets of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AOnset of Action for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/ADuration of Action for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AHalf Life of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/ASide Effects of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AContra-indications of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AInteractions for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/ATypical Dosage for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/ASchedule of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AStorage Requirements for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/AEffects of Overdose of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Folic acidN/A
Vit B12About Vit B12N/AMechanism of Action of Vit B12Vitamin B12 is an essential constituent for growth, cell reproduction, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis. Vitamin B12 is converted in to coenzyme B12 in the tissues which is essential for conversion of methyl-malonate to succinate and synthesis of methionine from homocystine. It is also associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. Cells characterized by rapid division such as epithelial cells, bone marrow, and myeloid cells appear to have greatest requirement of Cyanocobalamin.Pharmacokinets of Vit B12Absorption: Absorbed irregularly after oral administration and absorption depends on Ca and intrinsic factor. It is also administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly.
Distribution: Distributed in to liver, bone marrow, and other tissues. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk.
Metabolism: It is metabolized in liver.
Excretion: In normal dosage it is reabsorbed from bile and a minute portion is excreted through urine but the extra drug is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Vit B12N/ADuration of Action for Vit B12N/AHalf Life of Vit B12N/ASide Effects of Vit B121. Anaphylaxis
2. Anaphylactoid reactions
3. Pain and burning sensation at injection site
6. Transient diarrhea
7. Peripheral vascular thrombosis
8. Pulmonary oedema
Contra-indications of Vit B121. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Leber`s disease
Special Precautions while taking Vit B121. Anemic patients with coexisting cardiac, pulmonary and hypertensive diseases.Pregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Use with caution
Indications for Vit B121. Vitamin B12 deficiency
2. Pernicious Anaemia
3. Peripheral neuropathy (diabetic, alcoholic, and drug induced)
Interactions for Vit B12N/ATypical Dosage for Vit B12I.M., S.C.:
Pernicious Anaemia: 100mcg daily for 1 week followed by the same dose given on alternate days for 7 doses and then every 3 to 4days for another 3 weeks. This regimen should be followed by 100mcg monthly for life. Concurrently administer folic acid if required.
Vitamin B12 deficiency other than pernicious Anaemia: 30mcg daily for 5 to 10days depending up on the severity of the condition.
Maintenance dosage: 100 to 200mcg once monthly.
Children: 100mcg I.M. or S.C. over the course of 2 or more weeks.
Maintenance dosage: 60mcg monthly I.M. or S.C.
Schilling test flushing dose:
Adults and Children: 1000mcg I.M. in single dose
Recommended RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for Vitamin B12:
Infants up to 6months of age: 0.3mcg.
Children age 6 months to 1 year: 0.5mcg.
Children age 1 to 3: 0.7mcg.
Children age 4 to 6: 1mcg.
Children age 7 to 10: 1.4mcg.
Children age 11 to adult: 2mcg..
Pregnant women: 2.2mcg.
Breast feeding women: 2.6mcg.
Schedule of Vit B12CStorage Requirements for Vit B12Store at room temperature range of 15 to 30 degree C.in a light resistant well closed container in a dry place.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vit B12Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B12Not applicable. Even in large doses Vitamin B12 isn`t usually toxic.
Vit B3About Vit B3N/AMechanism of Action of Vit B3Niacin refers to Nicotinic acid as well as Nicotinamide which exerts it`s action by influencing metabolic reactions. It is converted in to coenzymes Ncotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and it`s phosphate Ncotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) involved in oxidation reduction reactions. These pyridine nucleotides act as hydrogen acceptors in the electron transport chain in tissue respiration, glycolysis, and fat synthesis. Nicotinic acid in high doses has vasodilator effects and also improves lipid profile; reduces serum cholesterol, raises HDL level, lowers VLDL, and LDL levels.Pharmacokinets of Vit B3Absorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed in the body, and also secreted in to breast milk, Modest amounts are stored in liver, Metabolism: Metabolized in to active metabolites in liver, Excretion: Extra drug is excreted through urine.Onset of Action for Vit B3N/ADuration of Action for Vit B3N/AHalf Life of Vit B3N/ASide Effects of Vit B31. Flushing
2. Activation of peptic ulcer
11. Hepatic impairment
Contra-indications of Vit B31. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Hepatic impairment
3. Peptic ulcer
4. Severe hypotension
5. Arterial haemorrhage
Special Precautions while taking Vit B31.History of liver disease
2.Gall bladder diseases
4.Coronary artery diseases
6.When use along with Statins reduces the dosage of StatinsPregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Vit B31. Pellagra
2. Niacin deficiency
3. Hartnup disease
4. Hyperlipidaemia (only nicotinic acid
5. Peripheral vascular diseases (only nicotinic acid)Interactions for Vit B3Aspirin: May decrease the metabolic clearance of nicotinic acid
Sympathetic blocking agent: May cause added vasodilation and hypotension
Isoniazid: may deplete levels of niacin and cause deficiency.
Typical Dosage for Vit B3Oral:
Pellagra: 200 to 500mg daily in divided doses
Prophylactically: 20 to 50mg daily.
Dietary supplement: 10 to 20mg daily
Peripheral vascular diseases (only nicotinic acid): 100 to 150mg three to five times daily. Alternatively 1000 to 2000g once daily at bed time.
Hyperlipidaemia (only nicotinic acid): 1.5 to 6g daily in two to four divided doses with or after meals.
Hartnup disease: 50 to 200mg daily in divided doses.
Schedule of Vit B3C1Storage Requirements for Vit B3Store at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree CEffects of Missed Dosage of Vit B3Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B3Provide supportive measures and symptomatic treatment
Folic AcidAbout Folic AcidDietary supplement, Folate derivative( B9 ), Water Soluble Vitamin.Mechanism of Action of Folic AcidFolic acid reduced by enzymes folate reductase and dihydrofolate reductase and forms dihydrofolic acid tetrahydrofolic acid respectively. Tetrahydrofolic acid acts as a coenzyme which mediates a number of one carbon transfer reactions by carrying a methyl group as an adduct. It involves a number of reactions such as 1).conversion of homocysteine to methionine. 2).synthesis of thymidylate which is an essential constituent of DNA from methylene-tetrahydrofolic acid. 3). Conversion of serine to glycine by tetrahydrofolic acid and forms methylene-tetrahydrofolic acid. 4).to introduce carbon units at position 2 and 8 during de novo purine synthesis requires formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid and methenyl-tetrahydrofolic acid.5).generation and utilization of "formate pool". 6).For mediating formino group transfer in histidine metabolism. Folic acid is required to maintain normal erythropoiesis and nucleoprotein synthesis.Pharmacokinets of Folic AcidAbsorption: Well absorbed orally
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body and highest concentration is seen in liver. It appears in the CSF and breast milk
Metabolism: Metabolized in to N-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid in liver
Excretion: Extra drug is excreted unchanged in urine. A small portion of folate is lost by a combination of urinary and fecal excretion and oxidative cleavage of molecule.
Onset of Action for Folic AcidOral: 20 to 30minutes
I.V.: 5 minutes
I.M.:10 to 20minutes
Duration of Action for Folic AcidOral: 3 to 6 hours
I.V.:3 to 6minutes
I.M.:3 to 6hours
Half Life of Folic AcidN/ASide Effects of Folic AcidN/AContra-indications of Folic AcidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Folic Acid1. In patients with undiagnosed anaemia; because it may mask pernicious anaemia
2. In pernicious anaemia and other megaloblastic where vitamin B12 is deficient
Pregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Folic Acid1. Megaloblastic anaemia
2. Folic acid deficiency
3. Anaemias of pregnancy
4. Nutritional anaemia
6. Tropical sprue
7. Non tropical sprue
Interactions for Folic Acid1. Hypersensitivity reactions with injection form
Typical Dosage for Folic AcidOral: 5mg 1 to 4 times daily; depending up on the severity of deficiency.
Maintenance dosage: Half of the therapeutic dosage.
Children: 2.5 to 5mg 1 to 2 times daily.
Schedule of Folic AcidC1 (Oral)
Storage Requirements for Folic AcidStore at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 25 degree C in a well closed container. Protect from excess heat, light and moisture.Effects of Missed Dosage of Folic AcidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Folic AcidRelatively non toxic. Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
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