Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B12 Pharmacology
Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B12
Physiological functions: Thiamine pyrophosphate is a coenzyme and the active form of vitamin B. It functions as coenzyme in decarboxylation of a-keto acid and in Hexose Monophosphate shunt.
Deficiency symptoms: In severe vitamin B1 deficiency beriberi develops. It is of two types:
a) Wet beriberi
b) Dry beriberi
Wet beriberi: In this the symptoms are related to the cardiovascular system and they are palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnoea, ECG changes, oedema, and high output cardiac failure.
Dry beriberi: The symptoms and signs are related to the Nervous system. The main features are peripheral neuritis, hyperaesthesia (localized areas) or anaesthesia, there is gradual loss in muscle strength, wrist drop, poor memory, depression, lack of initiative and anorexia.
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body. It is also distributed in to breast milk.
Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver.
Excretion: Excess thiamine is excreted through urine.
2. Cardiovascular collapse
8. Allergic reactions
9. Tightness of throat
10. Feeling of warmth
13. Tenderness and induration following I. M. administration
2. Dry beriberi
3. Wet beriberi
4. Wernicke`s encephalopathy
5. Hyperemesis gravidarum
6. Korsakoffs syndrome
7. Polyneuritis secondary to alcoholism
8. Multiple neurosis
9. Toxic and confusional states
10. Anorexia nervosa
In mild deficiency: 10 to 25mg/day.
In severe deficiency: 200 to 300mg/day.
Adults: 10 to 20mg I.M. depending up on the severity of the condition (Up to 100mg I.M. or I.V. for severe cases); thrice daily for two weeks followed by dietary correction and multivitamin supplement containing 5 to 30mg Thiamine/day in single or divided doses for 1 month.
Wernicke`s encephalopathy: 100mg I.V. followed by 50 to 100mg IM. or I.V./day.
"Wet beriberi with heart failure": 10 to 30mg I.V. for emergency treatment.
Deficiency symptoms: Peripheral neuritis, seizures, stomatitis, glossitis, anaemia, seborrhea like lesions.
Distribution: It is mainly distributed in the body in protein bound form. It is stored primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent muscle and brain.
Metabolism: It is metabolised in the liver
2. Unstable gait
4. Perioral numbness
6. Numbness of feet
8. Sensory neuropathy
3. Premenstrual syndrome
4. Hyperoxaluria type 1
5. Metabolic disorder
6. Isoniazid poisoning
Levodopa: Pyridoxine reverses the therapeutic effect of Levodopa.
Phenobarbital, Phenytoin: Pyridoxine decreases serum level of these anticonvulsants.
Dietary deficiency: 2.5 -10 mg / day for effective therapeutic response is obtained.
Maintenance dose: 2 - 5 mg / day for several weeks.
Drug induced deficiency: 100 - 200 mg / day for 3 weeks.
Maintenance dose: 25 - 100 mg / day
Neuropathy: 50 - 200 mg /day
Premenstrual syndrome: 40 - 500 mg / day
Hyperoxaluria type 1: 25 - 300 mg / day
Metabolic disorder: 100-500 mg /day.
Isoniazid poisoning: Initial dose: 1 - 4 g as IV administration, then 1 g IM every 30 minute until Pyridoxine dose is equal to the Isoniazid dose has been given.
Distribution: Distributed in to liver, bone marrow, and other tissues. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk.
Metabolism: It is metabolized in liver.
Excretion: In normal dosage it is reabsorbed from bile and a minute portion is excreted through urine but the extra drug is excreted through urine.
2. Anaphylactoid reactions
3. Pain and burning sensation at injection site
6. Transient diarrhea
7. Peripheral vascular thrombosis
8. Pulmonary oedema
2. Leber`s disease
NEONATES : Use with caution
2. Pernicious Anaemia
3. Peripheral neuropathy (diabetic, alcoholic, and drug induced)
Pernicious Anaemia: 100mcg daily for 1 week followed by the same dose given on alternate days for 7 doses and then every 3 to 4days for another 3 weeks. This regimen should be followed by 100mcg monthly for life. Concurrently administer folic acid if required.
Vitamin B12 deficiency other than pernicious Anaemia: 30mcg daily for 5 to 10days depending up on the severity of the condition.
Maintenance dosage: 100 to 200mcg once monthly.
Children: 100mcg I.M. or S.C. over the course of 2 or more weeks.
Maintenance dosage: 60mcg monthly I.M. or S.C.
Schilling test flushing dose:
Adults and Children: 1000mcg I.M. in single dose
Recommended RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for Vitamin B12:
Infants up to 6months of age: 0.3mcg.
Children age 6 months to 1 year: 0.5mcg.
Children age 1 to 3: 0.7mcg.
Children age 4 to 6: 1mcg.
Children age 7 to 10: 1.4mcg.
Children age 11 to adult: 2mcg..
Pregnant women: 2.2mcg.
Breast feeding women: 2.6mcg.
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