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- Pharmacology For Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5
Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5 Pharmacology
Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5About Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AMechanism of Action of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/APharmacokinets of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AOnset of Action for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/ADuration of Action for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AHalf Life of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/ASide Effects of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AContra-indications of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/ASpecial Precautions while taking Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AInteractions for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/ATypical Dosage for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/ASchedule of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AStorage Requirements for Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/AEffects of Overdose of Vit B12 + Vit B3 + Vit B1+ Vit B6 + Vit B5N/A
Vit B12About Vit B12N/AMechanism of Action of Vit B12Vitamin B12 is an essential constituent for growth, cell reproduction, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein and myelin synthesis. Vitamin B12 is converted in to coenzyme B12 in the tissues which is essential for conversion of methyl-malonate to succinate and synthesis of methionine from homocystine. It is also associated with fat and carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. Cells characterized by rapid division such as epithelial cells, bone marrow, and myeloid cells appear to have greatest requirement of Cyanocobalamin.Pharmacokinets of Vit B12Absorption: Absorbed irregularly after oral administration and absorption depends on Ca and intrinsic factor. It is also administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly.
Distribution: Distributed in to liver, bone marrow, and other tissues. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk.
Metabolism: It is metabolized in liver.
Excretion: In normal dosage it is reabsorbed from bile and a minute portion is excreted through urine but the extra drug is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Vit B12N/ADuration of Action for Vit B12N/AHalf Life of Vit B12N/ASide Effects of Vit B121. Anaphylaxis
2. Anaphylactoid reactions
3. Pain and burning sensation at injection site
6. Transient diarrhea
7. Peripheral vascular thrombosis
8. Pulmonary oedema
Contra-indications of Vit B121. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Leber`s disease
Special Precautions while taking Vit B121. Anemic patients with coexisting cardiac, pulmonary and hypertensive diseases.Pregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Use with caution
Indications for Vit B121. Vitamin B12 deficiency
2. Pernicious Anaemia
3. Peripheral neuropathy (diabetic, alcoholic, and drug induced)
Interactions for Vit B12N/ATypical Dosage for Vit B12I.M., S.C.:
Pernicious Anaemia: 100mcg daily for 1 week followed by the same dose given on alternate days for 7 doses and then every 3 to 4days for another 3 weeks. This regimen should be followed by 100mcg monthly for life. Concurrently administer folic acid if required.
Vitamin B12 deficiency other than pernicious Anaemia: 30mcg daily for 5 to 10days depending up on the severity of the condition.
Maintenance dosage: 100 to 200mcg once monthly.
Children: 100mcg I.M. or S.C. over the course of 2 or more weeks.
Maintenance dosage: 60mcg monthly I.M. or S.C.
Schilling test flushing dose:
Adults and Children: 1000mcg I.M. in single dose
Recommended RDA (recommended dietary allowance) for Vitamin B12:
Infants up to 6months of age: 0.3mcg.
Children age 6 months to 1 year: 0.5mcg.
Children age 1 to 3: 0.7mcg.
Children age 4 to 6: 1mcg.
Children age 7 to 10: 1.4mcg.
Children age 11 to adult: 2mcg..
Pregnant women: 2.2mcg.
Breast feeding women: 2.6mcg.
Schedule of Vit B12CStorage Requirements for Vit B12Store at room temperature range of 15 to 30 degree C.in a light resistant well closed container in a dry place.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vit B12Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B12Not applicable. Even in large doses Vitamin B12 isn`t usually toxic.
Vit B3About Vit B3N/AMechanism of Action of Vit B3Niacin refers to Nicotinic acid as well as Nicotinamide which exerts it`s action by influencing metabolic reactions. It is converted in to coenzymes Ncotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and it`s phosphate Ncotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) involved in oxidation reduction reactions. These pyridine nucleotides act as hydrogen acceptors in the electron transport chain in tissue respiration, glycolysis, and fat synthesis. Nicotinic acid in high doses has vasodilator effects and also improves lipid profile; reduces serum cholesterol, raises HDL level, lowers VLDL, and LDL levels.Pharmacokinets of Vit B3Absorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed in the body, and also secreted in to breast milk, Modest amounts are stored in liver, Metabolism: Metabolized in to active metabolites in liver, Excretion: Extra drug is excreted through urine.Onset of Action for Vit B3N/ADuration of Action for Vit B3N/AHalf Life of Vit B3N/ASide Effects of Vit B31. Flushing
2. Activation of peptic ulcer
11. Hepatic impairment
Contra-indications of Vit B31. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Hepatic impairment
3. Peptic ulcer
4. Severe hypotension
5. Arterial haemorrhage
Special Precautions while taking Vit B31.History of liver disease
2.Gall bladder diseases
4.Coronary artery diseases
6.When use along with Statins reduces the dosage of StatinsPregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Vit B31. Pellagra
2. Niacin deficiency
3. Hartnup disease
4. Hyperlipidaemia (only nicotinic acid
5. Peripheral vascular diseases (only nicotinic acid)Interactions for Vit B3Aspirin: May decrease the metabolic clearance of nicotinic acid
Sympathetic blocking agent: May cause added vasodilation and hypotension
Isoniazid: may deplete levels of niacin and cause deficiency.
Typical Dosage for Vit B3Oral:
Pellagra: 200 to 500mg daily in divided doses
Prophylactically: 20 to 50mg daily.
Dietary supplement: 10 to 20mg daily
Peripheral vascular diseases (only nicotinic acid): 100 to 150mg three to five times daily. Alternatively 1000 to 2000g once daily at bed time.
Hyperlipidaemia (only nicotinic acid): 1.5 to 6g daily in two to four divided doses with or after meals.
Hartnup disease: 50 to 200mg daily in divided doses.
Schedule of Vit B3C1Storage Requirements for Vit B3Store at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree CEffects of Missed Dosage of Vit B3Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B3Provide supportive measures and symptomatic treatment
Vit B1About Vit B1
Physiological functions: Thiamine pyrophosphate is a coenzyme and the active form of vitamin B. It functions as coenzyme in decarboxylation of a-keto acid and in Hexose Monophosphate shunt.
Deficiency symptoms: In severe vitamin B1 deficiency beriberi develops. It is of two types:
a) Wet beriberi
b) Dry beriberi
Wet beriberi: In this the symptoms are related to the cardiovascular system and they are palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnoea, ECG changes, oedema, and high output cardiac failure.
Dry beriberi: The symptoms and signs are related to the Nervous system. The main features are peripheral neuritis, hyperaesthesia (localized areas) or anaesthesia, there is gradual loss in muscle strength, wrist drop, poor memory, depression, lack of initiative and anorexia.Mechanism of Action of Vit B1Thiamine exerts it`s action by influencing carbohydrate metabolism. It combines with ATP to form thiamine pyrophosphate in the body. Thiamine pyrophosphate acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate metabolism, decarboxylation of ketoacids, and hexose monophosphate shunt. It also have plays some role in neuromuscular transmission.Pharmacokinets of Vit B1Absorption: Well absorbed orally.
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body. It is also distributed in to breast milk.
Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver.
Excretion: Excess thiamine is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Vit B1N/ADuration of Action for Vit B1N/AHalf Life of Vit B1N/ASide Effects of Vit B11. Angioedema
2. Cardiovascular collapse
8. Allergic reactions
9. Tightness of throat
10. Feeling of warmth
13. Tenderness and induration following I. M. administration
Contra-indications of Vit B11. Hypersensitivity to the drugSpecial Precautions while taking Vit B1N/APregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Vit B11. Thiamine deficiency
2. Dry beriberi
3. Wet beriberi
4. Wernicke`s encephalopathy
5. Hyperemesis gravidarum
6. Korsakoffs syndrome
7. Polyneuritis secondary to alcoholism
8. Multiple neurosis
9. Toxic and confusional states
10. Anorexia nervosa
Interactions for Vit B1N/ATypical Dosage for Vit B1Oral :
In mild deficiency: 10 to 25mg/day.
In severe deficiency: 200 to 300mg/day.
Adults: 10 to 20mg I.M. depending up on the severity of the condition (Up to 100mg I.M. or I.V. for severe cases); thrice daily for two weeks followed by dietary correction and multivitamin supplement containing 5 to 30mg Thiamine/day in single or divided doses for 1 month.
Wernicke`s encephalopathy: 100mg I.V. followed by 50 to 100mg IM. or I.V./day.
"Wet beriberi with heart failure": 10 to 30mg I.V. for emergency treatment.
Schedule of Vit B1C1 (Oral)Storage Requirements for Vit B1Store in a well closed container; in a cool place and protect from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vit B1Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B1Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
Vit B6About Vit B6Physiological functions: It is involved as a coenzyme (Pyridoxal phosphate) in metabolism of tryptophan, in several metabolic transformations of amino acids including transamination, decarboxylation & racemization.
Deficiency symptoms: Peripheral neuritis, seizures, stomatitis, glossitis, anaemia, seborrhea like lesions.Mechanism of Action of Vit B6Vitamin B6 is a collective term for Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives such as Pyridoxine phosphate, Pyridoxal phosphate and Pyridoxamine derivatives respectively. Vitamin B6 is essential for the metabolism of amino acid, glycogen and fatty acids, for nerve functions, for the formation of red blood cells and also helps the skin healthy. Vitamin B6 is also used for the synthesis of nucleic acid, Haemoglobin, Sphingomyelin, other Sphingolipids, Serotonin, Dopamine, Noradrenaline and GABA.Pharmacokinets of Vit B6Absorption: Vitamin B6 is readily absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is mainly distributed in the body in protein bound form. It is stored primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent muscle and brain.
Metabolism: It is metabolised in the liver
Onset of Action for Vit B6N/ADuration of Action for Vit B6N/AHalf Life of Vit B615-20 daysSide Effects of Vit B61. Neuropathy
2. Unstable gait
4. Perioral numbness
6. Numbness of feet
8. Sensory neuropathy
Contra-indications of Vit B61. Hypersensitivity to Vitamin B6Special Precautions while taking Vit B6N/APregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
Indications for Vit B61. Vitamin B6 deficiency including inadequate diet and drug induced causes
3. Premenstrual syndrome
4. Hyperoxaluria type 1
5. Metabolic disorder
6. Isoniazid poisoning
Interactions for Vit B6Cycloserine, Hydralazine, Isoniazide, Oral contraceptive, Penicillamine: Increase Pyridoxine requirement.
Levodopa: Pyridoxine reverses the therapeutic effect of Levodopa.
Phenobarbital, Phenytoin: Pyridoxine decreases serum level of these anticonvulsants.
Typical Dosage for Vit B6Adult: 10 - 20 mg / day
Dietary deficiency: 2.5 -10 mg / day for effective therapeutic response is obtained.
Maintenance dose: 2 - 5 mg / day for several weeks.
Drug induced deficiency: 100 - 200 mg / day for 3 weeks.
Maintenance dose: 25 - 100 mg / day
Neuropathy: 50 - 200 mg /day
Premenstrual syndrome: 40 - 500 mg / day
Hyperoxaluria type 1: 25 - 300 mg / day
Metabolic disorder: 100-500 mg /day.
Isoniazid poisoning: Initial dose: 1 - 4 g as IV administration, then 1 g IM every 30 minute until Pyridoxine dose is equal to the Isoniazid dose has been given.
Schedule of Vit B6N/AStorage Requirements for Vit B6Store it at 15 - 30 degree C. Protect from moisture and heat.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vit B6Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B6Give supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. The signs of Pyridoxine overdose can be resolved by discontinuation (withdrawal) of Pyridoxine.
Vit B5About Vit B5Vitamin , A water-soluble B complex vitamin.Mechanism of Action of Vit B5Pantothenic acid exerts it`s actions by influencing metabolic reactions. It is a component of coenzyme-A which functions in carbohydrate, fat, steroid and porphyrin metabolism by catalyzing acetate transfer reactions.
Pharmacokinets of Vit B5Absorption: Well absorbed orally.
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body tissues, and appears in the breast milk.
Excretion: 70% excreted unchanged in urine and 30% in faeces.
Onset of Action for Vit B5N/ADuration of Action for Vit B5N/AHalf Life of Vit B5N/ASide Effects of Vit B5N/AContra-indications of Vit B5N/ASpecial Precautions while taking Vit B5N/APregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Vit B51. Nutritional supplement in conjunction with other B vitamins
2. Post operative paralytic ileus.
Interactions for Vit B5Tetracycline: Vitamin B5 should not be taken at the same time as the Tetracycline because it interferes with the absorption and effectiveness of this medication.
B vitamins should be taken at different times from tetracycline.
Typical Dosage for Vit B5Oral: 50 to 100mg daily.Schedule of Vit B5C1Storage Requirements for Vit B5Store in a well closed container; in a cool place and protect from light.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vit B5Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vit B5Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
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