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- Pharmacology For Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acid
Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acid Pharmacology
Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidAbout Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AMechanism of Action of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/APharmacokinets of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AOnset of Action for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/ADuration of Action for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AHalf Life of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/ASide Effects of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AContra-indications of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/APregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicated; since Allopurinol is contraindicated in breast feeding mother.Children Related InformationN/AIndications for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidHyperuricaemiaInteractions for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/ATypical Dosage for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acid1- 2 tablet to be taken once dailySchedule of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AStorage Requirements for Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/AEffects of Overdose of Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acidN/A
AllopurinolAbout AllopurinolXanthine oxidase inhibitor, In hyperuricemia in gout or during cancer chemotherapy.Mechanism of Action of AllopurinolIt inhibits an enzyme xanthine oxidase that is necessary to form uric acid (the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine to uric acid), a substance present in abnormally large amounts in the blood of persons with gout that forms solid deposits in the joints, the kidneys, and other tissuesPharmacokinets of AllopurinolAbsorption- Well absorbed after oral administration
Distribution- Widely distributed in the body. Drug and its metabolites not bound to the plasma proteins
Metabolism- It is metabolized in the liver by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Oxypurinol is its active metabolite
Excretion- Excreted via urine and feces (as unchanged and metabolites form)
Onset of Action for Allopurinol2 to 3 daysDuration of Action for Allopurinol30 hrsHalf Life of AllopurinolIts plasma half life is 15 hrsSide Effects of Allopurinol1. Upset stomach.
4. Skin rash.
5. Painful urination.
6. Blood in the urine.
7. Irritation of the eyes.
8. Swelling of the lips or mouth.
10. Sore throat.
12. Loss of appetite.
13. Unexpected weight loss.
Contra-indications of Allopurinol1. Hypersensitivity to the drug.
2. Acute gout.
Special Precautions while taking Allopurinol1. Hepatic impairment.
2. Renal dysfunction.
3. Any work which require mental alertness such as driving and operating machine.
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with caution.Old Age Related InformationUse with caution.Breast Feeding Related InformationContraindicated.Children Related InformationUse with caution.Indications for Allopurinol1. Primary hyperuricaemia of Gout.
2. Secondary hyperuricaemia due to myeloid metaplasia, radiation, cancer chemotherapy, thiazide diuretics.
3. Prevention of uric acid nephropathy.
Interactions for AllopurinolACE Inhibitors: Higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions.
Oral hypoglycemic Agents: Enhanced activity.
Anticoagulants: Enhanced activity.
Thiopurines (Azothioprine & Mercaptopurine): Clinically significant increase in pharmacologic and toxic effects.
Uricosuric Agents (Probenecid): Enhance urinary excretion of Allopurinol.
Cyclophosphamide: Myelosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide enhanced.
Thiazide Derivatives: Increase in hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol.
Ampicillin: Increase in ampicillin induced skin rash.
Salicylates: Enhance urinary excretion of allopurinol.
Typical Dosage for AllopurinolOral-
Initial dose: 100 - 200 mg daily
Maintenance dose: 200-800 mg daily
Schedule of AllopurinolHStorage Requirements for AllopurinolStore at 15-25?C (59-77?F) in a dry place and protect from lightEffects of Missed Dosage of AllopurinolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of AllopurinolGive symptomatic and supportive treatment.
Alpha-Lipoic acidAbout Alpha-Lipoic acidNaturally occurring dithiol compound , antioxidant, Agent for neuropathies.Mechanism of Action of Alpha-Lipoic acidAlpha-lipoic acid and its reduced metabolite, Dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), form a redox couple and may scavenge a wide range of reactive oxygen species. Alpha-lipoic acid has been found to decrease urinary isoprostanes, O-LDL and plasma protein carbonyls, markers of oxidative stress. Further, alpha-lipoic acid and its redox couple DHLA have been found to have antioxidant activity in aqueous, as well as in lipophilic regions, and in extra cellular and intracellular environments. Alpha-lipoic acid participates in the recycling of other important biologic antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C, Ubiquinone and glutathione.
Both alpha-lipoic acid and DHLA can scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the nitric oxide radical, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite. Alpha-lipoic acid may scavenge singlet oxygen, and DHLA may scavenge super oxide and peroxyl reactive oxygen species.
Pharmacokinets of Alpha-Lipoic acidAbsorption: Alpha-lipoic acid is absorbed from the small intestine. The natural R-entantiomer is more readily absorbed than the L-entantiomer and is the more active form.
Distribution:It is distributed to the liver via the portal circulation and to various tissues in the body via the systemic circulation. . Alpha-lipoic acid readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is found, after its distribution to the various body tissues, intracellularly, intramitochondrialy and extracellularly.Metabolism: Alpha-lipoic acid is metabolized to its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), by mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase enzyme. DHLA, together with lipoic acid, form a redox couple. It is also metabolized to lipoamide, which functions as the lipoic acid cofactor in the multienzyme complexes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylations of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Alpha-lipoic acid may be metabolized to dithiol octanoic acid, which can undergo catabolism.
Onset of Action for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ADuration of Action for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/AHalf Life of Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ASide Effects of Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Nausea
2.VomitingContra-indications of Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Contraindicated during radiotherapySpecial Precautions while taking Alpha-Lipoic acidPatient with diabetes and problems with glucose intolerancePregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Diabetic neuropathy
2.It may help prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and may be protective, generally, against oxidative stress and, specifically, against atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury and various radiologic and chemical toxins.
3.It may also be useful in some inborn metabolic disordersInteractions for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ATypical Dosage for Alpha-Lipoic acidAdult: up to 600 milligrams daily
Diabetic neuropathy: 300 milligrams daily taken in divided doses.Schedule of Alpha-Lipoic acidN/AStorage Requirements for Alpha-Lipoic acidStore at room temperature away from moisture and heat.Keep out of the reach of children. Keep the medicine from freezing. Do not refrigerate.Effects of Missed Dosage of Alpha-Lipoic acidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Continue the regular schedule.Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Alpha-Lipoic acidGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.
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Allopurinol + Alpha-lipoic acid is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for allopurinol + alpha-lipoic acid might be better known than allopurinol + alpha-lipoic acid itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have allopurinol + alpha-lipoic acid in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for allopurinol + alpha-lipoic acid.