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- Pharmacology For Vitamin A + Vitamin C + Minerals
Vitamin A + Vitamin C + Minerals Pharmacology
Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsAbout Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AMechanism of Action of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/APharmacokinets of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AOnset of Action for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/ADuration of Action for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AHalf Life of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/ASide Effects of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AContra-indications of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AInteractions for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/ATypical Dosage for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/ASchedule of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AStorage Requirements for Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/AEffects of Overdose of Vitamin A + Vitamin C + MineralsN/A
Vitamin AAbout Vitamin AFat-soluble vitamin, Treatment of vitamin A deficiency.Mechanism of Action of Vitamin AVitamin A is required for a variety of physiological functions in the body such as: - 1).Proper functioning of retina and formation of pigment Rhodopsin during dark adaptation. 2).promotes differentiation and maintains structural integrity of epithelia over the body and also retard the malignancies of epithelial structures.3).Promotes mucous secretion. 4).Inhibits keratinization, 5). Maintains proper bone growth, 6).Maintenance of spermatogenesis, 7).Supports foetal development, 8).Improves resistance to infection. It is required for proper antibody response, normal lymphocyte proliferation and killer cell function.Pharmacokinets of Vitamin AAbsorption: Completely absorbed normally. Steatorrhoea, bile deficiency, and protein poor diet adversely affects the absorption and absorption requires bile salts, pancreatic lipase, and dietary fat.
Distribution: Stored primarily as palmitate in kupffer`s cells in liver. Circulates in the form of specific alpha-1 protein; retinol binding protein and transported to cellular retinol binding protein of target cells.
Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver.
Excretion: Excreted mainly through bile and a small amount is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Vitamin AN/ADuration of Action for Vitamin AN/AHalf Life of Vitamin AN/ASide Effects of Vitamin AAdverse effects occurs only with higher doses and toxicity
7. Bone and joint pain
10. Increased intracranial pressure
11. Hepatic impairment
12. Anaphylactic shock
Contra-indications of Vitamin A1. Hypervitaminosis A
2. Hypersensitivity to the vitamin A
Special Precautions while taking Vitamin A1. Oral form should not use in patients with malabsorption syndrome.
2. In inadequate bile secretion oral route may be used with concurrent administration of bile salts.
3. I. V. route is contraindicated except for special water miscible forms intended for infusion with large parenteral volumes and should not use I. V. push of vitamin A of any type.
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Vitamin A1. Vitamin A deficiency
5. Bitot`s spots
6. Night blindness
Interactions for Vitamin ACholestyramine: Absorption of Vitamin A is reduced due to reduced availability of fat stabilizing bile salts.
Mineral oil: Interferes with intestinal absorption of Vitamin A.
Oral Contraceptives: Plasma Vitamin A levels are significantly increased.Typical Dosage for Vitamin ASevere vitamin A deficiency with xerophthalmia: 500000 IU daily for 3 days followed by 50000 IU daily for 14 days. Then maintenance dosage of 10000 to 20000 IU for 2months followed by adequate dietary nutrition and RDA vitamin A supplements.
Severe vitamin A deficiency: 100000 IU daily for 3 days followed by 50000 IU daily for 14 days. Then maintenance dosage of 10000 to 20000 IU for 2months followed by adequate dietary nutrition and RDA vitamin A supplements.
Children: 5000 to 10000 IU daily for 14 days.
Schedule of Vitamin AC1 (Oral)
Storage Requirements for Vitamin AStore in a well closed, airtight container in a cool dry place.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vitamin ATake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vitamin ADiscontinue the vitamin A if hypercalcaemia persists and administer I.V. saline, prednisolone, and calcitonin if required. Monitor hepatic function tests to detect liver damage.
Vitamin CAbout Vitamin CWater soluble vitamin, antioxidant.Mechanism of Action of Vitamin CVitamin C exerts it`s action by influencing the biologic oxidations and reductions used in cellular respirations. It directly stimulates collagen synthesis and maintains intracellular connective tissue. It involves in various metabolic reactions such as 1).Hydroxylation of praline and lysine residues of protocollagen which is essential for formation and stabilization of collagen triple helix, 2).hydroxylation of carnitine, 3).Conversion of folic acid to folinic acid, 4).biosynthesis of adrenal steroids, catecholamines, oxytocin, and ADH, 5).Metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins. Vitamin C is important in resistance to infections.Pharmacokinets of Vitamin CAbsorption: Well absorbed orally.
Distribution: Widely distributed both extracellularly and intracellularly, It crosses the placenta and also distributed in to the breast milk.
Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver; partly oxidized in to active dehydroascorbic acid and inactive metabolites.
Excretion: Inactive metabolites and extra drug is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Vitamin CN/ADuration of Action for Vitamin CN/AHalf Life of Vitamin CN/ASide Effects of Vitamin C1. Discomfort at injection site
2. Acid urine
3. Renal calculi
Contra-indications of Vitamin CNo known contraindicationsSpecial Precautions while taking Vitamin C1. Renal impairment
2. Ingestion of large doses during pregnancy has resulted in scurvy in neonates
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Vitamin C1. Scurvy
2. Prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin C deficiency
3. As an antioxidant to maintain natural colour and flavour of food items
4. For acidification of urine
5. Capillary fragility
6. Dental caries
Interactions for Vitamin COral contraceptives and estrogens: Vitamin C increases serum levels of oestrogen resulting in adverse reactions .
Warfarin: The anticoagulant effects of warfarin is reduced.
Lab Tests: Large doses (>500 mg) of vitamin C may cause false negative urine glucose determinations. May result in false negative amine dependent stool occult blood tests.Typical Dosage for Vitamin COral:
Adults: 50 to 1000mg/day depending up on the requirement.
Pregnancy and lactation: 100 to 150mg/day
Children: 30 to 100mg/day.
Adults: 1000mg twice daily to thrice daily.
Children: 300mg to 1000mg daily.
Sub clinical scurvy:
Oral, S.C., I.M., or I.V.: 100 to 250mg once daily or twice daily depending up on the severity of the condition. Then give a maintenance dosage of 50mg/day.
Children: 100 to 300mg depending up on the severity. Then give a maintenance dose of 35mg/day.
Schedule of Vitamin CC1 (Oral)
C (Parenteral)Storage Requirements for Vitamin CStore in a cool dry area in a well closed container. Protects from moisture, light and direct heat.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vitamin CTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vitamin CDiscontinue the therapy and provide symptomatic and supportive measures.
MineralsAbout MineralsDietary mineral supplement, Nutritional supplement.Mechanism of Action of MineralsN/APharmacokinets of MineralsN/AOnset of Action for MineralsN/ADuration of Action for MineralsN/AHalf Life of MineralsN/ASide Effects of MineralsN/AContra-indications of MineralsN/ASpecial Precautions while taking MineralsN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for MineralsN/AInteractions for MineralsN/ATypical Dosage for MineralsN/ASchedule of MineralsN/AStorage Requirements for MineralsN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of MineralsN/AEffects of Overdose of MineralsN/A
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