Glycopyrrolate Pharmacology


About Glycopyrrolate
Anticholinergic : Muscarinic antagonist, A synthetic quaternary amine, An antispasmodic in GI disorders, anaesthesia adjuvant.
Mechanism of Action of Glycopyrrolate
It inhibits the action of acetylcholine like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervations. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sino-atrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands, and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions.
General anaesthesia: Once muscle paralysis is no longer desired in general anaesthesia, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors are combined with a muscarinic receptor antagonist such as Glycopyrrolate to offset the muscarinic activation resulting from esterase inhibition.
Pharmacokinets of Glycopyrrolate
Absorption- Poorly absorbed (10%-20%) after oral administration. Rapidly absorbed after intravenous and intramuscular distribution
Distribution- Rapidly distributed in the body
Excretion- Excreted through urine, feces and biles
Onset of Action for Glycopyrrolate
Intravenous- below 1mimute
Intramuscular- 30 to 45 minutes
Duration of Action for Glycopyrrolate
Oral- 8 to 12 hrs
Intramuscular- 3 to 7 hrs
Intravenous- 3 to 7 hrs
Half Life of Glycopyrrolate
Side Effects of Glycopyrrolate
1. Difficulty breathing
2. Closing of throat
3. Swelling of lips, tongue, or face.
4. Irregular or fast heart rate
5. Rash
6. Flushing
7. Eye pain
8. Headache
9. Dizziness
10. Lightheadedness
11. Weakness
12. Nervousness
13. Blurred vision
14. Large pupils
15. Sensitivity of the eyes to bright light
16. Nausea
17. Bloating
18. Heartburn
19. Constipation
20. Changes in taste
21. Difficulty urinating
22. Decreased sweating
23. Nasal congestion
24. Stuffiness
25. Dry mouth
Contra-indications of Glycopyrrolate
1.Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Kidney disease
3. Blockage of your urinary tract (difficulty urinating)
4. Blockage in intestines
5. Ulcerative colitis
6. Glaucoma
7. Myasthenia gravis
Special Precautions while taking Glycopyrrolate
1. Hyperthyroidism
2. Coronary heart disease
3. Congestive heart failure
4. Tachycardia
5. Hypertension
6. Prostatic hypertrophy
7. Hiatal hernia associated with reflux oesophagitis
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Indications for Glycopyrrolate
1. Adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer
2. As a part of anaesthetic regimen before, during & after surgery
3. Anaesthetic adjuncts
Interactions for Glycopyrrolate
Cyclopropane: Increased ventricular arrhythmias.
Typical Dosage for Glycopyrrolate
Premedication: 0.004mg/kg (0.02ml/kg). Given 30-60 minutes before anaesthesia
Intra-operative: 0.1mg (0.5ml) by I.V. may be repeated if needed, at intervals of 2-3 minutes.
Post-operative: One-fifth of the dose of Neostigmine given.
Premeditation: 0.004mg/kg (0.02ml/kg). Given immediately before anesthesia
Children: Above 2 years-
Same dose as for adults
Below 2 years & infants-
Premedication: 0.008mg/kg (0.04ml/kg) .Given 30-60 minutes before anaesthesia or I.V. if given immediately before anaesthesia.
Intra-operative: 0.004mg/kg (0.02ml/kg). May be repeated if needed, at intervals of 2-3 minutes. Not to exceed 0.1mg (0.5ml) in a single dose.
Post-operative: One-fifth of the dose of Neostigmine given.
Peptic ulcer: 1 to 2g for 3 times daily
Schedule of Glycopyrrolate
Storage Requirements for Glycopyrrolate
Store at controlled room temperature, between 20? C and 25? C (68? F and 77? F)
Effects of Missed Dosage of Glycopyrrolate
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take only your next regularly scheduled dose. Do not take a double dose of this medication.

Effects of Overdose of Glycopyrrolate
Give symptomatic and supportive treatment. Induce emesis or gastric lavage. Administer saline cathartic and activated charcoal to reduce the further absorption of drug. If needed administer physostigmine to prevent Muscarinic effects. If there is urine retention provide catheterization to the patient

Home Delivery for Glycopyrrolate in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including glycopyrrolate.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for glycopyrrolate and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for glycopyrrolate may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take glycopyrrolate only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for glycopyrrolate before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for glycopyrrolate with the pharmacy.

Glycopyrrolate is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for glycopyrrolate might be better known than glycopyrrolate itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have glycopyrrolate in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for glycopyrrolate.