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- Pharmacology For Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + Paracetamol
Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + Paracetamol Pharmacology
Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolAbout Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AMechanism of Action of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/APharmacokinets of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AOnset of Action for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/ADuration of Action for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AHalf Life of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/ASide Effects of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AContra-indications of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/APregnancy Related InformationContraindicated; since Diclofenac sodium is contraindicated in pregnancy, the combination generic cannot be used in pregnancy.Old Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicated; since Diclofenac sodium and Dicyclomine are contraindicated in breast feeding, the combination generic cannot be used in breast feeding mother.Children Related InformationN/AIndications for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolIt is a combination of antispasmodic and anticholinergic Dicyclomine and analgesics Diclofenac and Paracetamol.
Interactions for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/ATypical Dosage for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + Paracetamol1 tablet to be taken 3 times daily.Schedule of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AStorage Requirements for Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/AEffects of Overdose of Dicyclomine + Diclofenac Sodium + ParacetamolN/A
DicyclomineAbout DicyclomineAnticholinergic ,Antimuscarinic, Antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence.Mechanism of Action of DicyclomineDicyclomine is an anticholinergic drug. It exerts its action by inhibiting muscarinic (((cholinergic))) receptors on smooth muscles and prevents the effect of Acetylcholine. Inhibition of Acetylcholine produces relaxation of smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract and reduces the painful spasm and cramp. It inhibits gastrointestinal propulsive motility and reduces gastric acid secretion. It also has a direct relaxant effect on smooth muscle. It readily crosses the blood brain barrier and produces CNS effects.Pharmacokinets of DicyclomineAbsorption: About 70 % of the drug is absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is extensively distributed in tissue mainly in protein bound (((99%))) form. It readily crosses blood brain barrier.
Metabolism: Dicyclomine undergoes hepatic metabolism
Excretion: It is excreted mainly in the urine and small amount in the faeces.
Onset of Action for Dicyclomine1-2 hours.Duration of Action for Dicyclomine4-6 hours.Half Life of Dicyclomine1.8 hours (((initial phase))). 9 - 10 hours (((secondary phase)))Side Effects of Dicyclomine1.Constipation
11.Increased intraocular pressure
Contra-indications of Dicyclomine1.Hypersensitivity to Dicyclomine and other anticholinergic drugs
2.Narrow angle glaucoma
3.Obstructive gastro intestinal tract
6.Severe ulcerative colitis
8.Unstable cardiovascular status in acute haemorrhage
Special Precautions while taking Dicyclomine1.Renal impairment
5.Hiatus hernia associated
11.Coronary artery disease
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with caution.Old Age Related InformationUse with caution.Breast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with caution.
NEONATES: contraindicatedIndications for Dicyclomine1. Irritable bowel syndrome
Interactions for DicyclomineN/ATypical Dosage for DicyclomineAdult:
Oral: 80 mg / day in 4 divided doses 30 - 60 minutes before meals. Depending on the patient`s response dose can be increased to 160 mg / day in 4 divided doses after 1 week.
Infant colic: 5 - 10 mg every 6 - 8 hours, 15 minutes before each feed; dose is depending on the patient`s response and age.
Schedule of DicyclomineHStorage Requirements for DicyclomineStore at 15 - 30 degree C in a tightly closed container. Protect from light.Keep out of the reach of children
Effects of Missed Dosage of DicyclomineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of DicyclomineGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal. Physostigmine is given to block the overdose symptoms of Dicyclomine.
Diclofenac SodiumAbout Diclofenac SodiumN/AMechanism of Action of Diclofenac SodiumDiclofenac possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic action. It inhibits the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase and there by inhibits the synthesis of Prostaglandins (PGs). It is more potent against cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme as compared to other NSAIDs like Indomethacin, Naproxen etc. It reduces intracellular concentrations of free arachidonic acid in leukocyte by altering its release or uptake. .Pharmacokinets of Diclofenac SodiumAbsorption: Diclofenac sodium is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. It undergoes first pass metabolism and its bioavailability is 50 % only. Distribution: It is distributed in highly protein bound form. Metabolism: Diclofenac sodium is metabolised in the liver. Excretion: Drug and metabolites are primarily excreted in urine and some amount in the bile.Onset of Action for Diclofenac Sodium1- 4.5 hoursDuration of Action for Diclofenac SodiumHoursHalf Life of Diclofenac Sodium2 hoursSide Effects of Diclofenac Sodium1.Nausea
9.Ulceration of the stomach or intestine
Contra-indications of Diclofenac Sodium1.Hypersensitivity to Indomethacin and other Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs(NSAID)
Special Precautions while taking Diclofenac Sodium1.Hepatic impairment
4.Blood clotting disorders
8.Cautioned against driving, operating or activities requiring concentration
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with caution
CHILDREN below 14: contraindicatedIndications for Diclofenac Sodium1.Ankylosing spondylitis
3.Joint disorders e.g. inflammatory disease in joints, crystal deposition in the joints
5.For the relief of pain and inflammation in dental minor surgery and orthopedic
7.Juvenile chronic arthritis
Interactions for Diclofenac SodiumLithium & Digoxin : Blood levels of lithium and digoxin increased leading to enhanced efficacy and posible toxicity.
Diuretics : Inhibits diuretics but efficacy of potassium sparing diuretics enhanced.
Methotrexate : Toxicity enhanced.
Salicylates : Efficacy of salicylates reduced.
Cyclosporine : Increases nephrotoxicity of both agents.
Hydantoins : Increases serum levels resulting in toxicity.
Typical Dosage for Diclofenac SodiumAdult: 100 - 150 mg / day in 2 - 3 divided doses.
For the relief of pain, Migraine, Dysmenorrhoea: 150 mg / day in 3 divided doses.
Osteoarthritis: 50 mg 2 - 3 times daily
Rheumatoid arthritis: 150 - 200 mg / day in 3 - 4 divided doses.
Ankylosing spondylitis: 25 mg 4 times daily give an extra dose of 25 mg at bed time if necessary.
Children Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: 0.5 - 2 mg / kg body weight / day in divided doses.
Maximum dose: 3 mg / kg body weight / day in divided doses
Schedule of Diclofenac SodiumHStorage Requirements for Diclofenac SodiumStore Diclofenac sodium at room temperature in a tightly closed light resistant container.Effects of Missed Dosage of Diclofenac SodiumTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Diclofenac SodiumGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal.
ParacetamolAbout ParacetamolAcetanilide derivative, Non narcotic Analgesic,Antipyretic.Mechanism of Action of ParacetamolParacetamol has analgesic and antipyretic action.
It is more active on cyclo-oxygenase enzyme in brain. Peripherally it is a poor inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.
Analgesic action: Paracetamol raises the pain threshold and produces analgesic effect.
Antipyretic action: Paracetamol lowers fever by direct action on the thermoregulatory centre in the Hypothalamus and block the effects of endogenous pyrogen.
Pharmacokinets of ParacetamolAbsorption: Paracetamol is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is distributed mostly in the body in unbound form.
Metabolism: It is extensively metabolised in the liver.
Excretion: Excreted in the urine.
Onset of Action for Paracetamol30 - 60 minutesDuration of Action for Paracetamol6 hoursHalf Life of Paracetamol1-4 hoursSide Effects of Paracetamol1. Nausea
2. Abdominal distress
3. Allergic reactions
Contra-indications of Paracetamol1. Hypersensitivity to ParacetamolSpecial Precautions while taking Paracetamol1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Contraindicated
Indications for Paracetamol1. To relieve pain and fever
2. Acute gout
Interactions for ParacetamolCholestyramine: Reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Charcoal: Activated, administered immediately reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Domperidone and metochlopramide: Enhance absorption of paracetamol.
Alcohol: Chronic excessive ingestion of alcohol potentiates hepatotoxicity of paracetamol.
Zidovudine: Effects zidovudine may be decreased.Typical Dosage for ParacetamolAdult:
500 - 1000 mg in 3 times daily
Maximum dose: 4 g / day
For migraine: 500 mg to be taken at the first sign of migraine attack and repeated 4 - 6 hourly until suppress mild attacks.
60 mg / kg body weight /day in 4 divided doses.
Schedule of ParacetamolHStorage Requirements for ParacetamolStore at 15-30 degree C in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of ParacetamolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of ParacetamolGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal. N-acetylcysteine is the specific antidote for Paracetamol poisoning. Dose: 150 mg /kg body weight as IV infusion over 15 minutes followed by same dose over 20 hours.
Maintenance dose: 75 mg / kg orally every 4 - 6 hours for 2 - 3 days. Haemodialysis can be done in emergency conditions.
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