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- Pharmacology For Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acid
Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acid Pharmacology
Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidAbout Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AMechanism of Action of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/APharmacokinets of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AOnset of Action for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/ADuration of Action for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AHalf Life of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/ASide Effects of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AContra-indications of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AInteractions for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/ATypical Dosage for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/ASchedule of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AStorage Requirements for Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/AEffects of Overdose of Dicyclomine + Paracetamol + Mefenamic acidN/A
DicyclomineAbout DicyclomineAnticholinergic ,Antimuscarinic, Antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence.Mechanism of Action of DicyclomineDicyclomine is an anticholinergic drug. It exerts its action by inhibiting muscarinic (((cholinergic))) receptors on smooth muscles and prevents the effect of Acetylcholine. Inhibition of Acetylcholine produces relaxation of smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract and reduces the painful spasm and cramp. It inhibits gastrointestinal propulsive motility and reduces gastric acid secretion. It also has a direct relaxant effect on smooth muscle. It readily crosses the blood brain barrier and produces CNS effects.Pharmacokinets of DicyclomineAbsorption: About 70 % of the drug is absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is extensively distributed in tissue mainly in protein bound (((99%))) form. It readily crosses blood brain barrier.
Metabolism: Dicyclomine undergoes hepatic metabolism
Excretion: It is excreted mainly in the urine and small amount in the faeces.
Onset of Action for Dicyclomine1-2 hours.Duration of Action for Dicyclomine4-6 hours.Half Life of Dicyclomine1.8 hours (((initial phase))). 9 - 10 hours (((secondary phase)))Side Effects of Dicyclomine1.Constipation
11.Increased intraocular pressure
Contra-indications of Dicyclomine1.Hypersensitivity to Dicyclomine and other anticholinergic drugs
2.Narrow angle glaucoma
3.Obstructive gastro intestinal tract
6.Severe ulcerative colitis
8.Unstable cardiovascular status in acute haemorrhage
Special Precautions while taking Dicyclomine1.Renal impairment
5.Hiatus hernia associated
11.Coronary artery disease
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with caution.Old Age Related InformationUse with caution.Breast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with caution.
NEONATES: contraindicatedIndications for Dicyclomine1. Irritable bowel syndrome
Interactions for DicyclomineN/ATypical Dosage for DicyclomineAdult:
Oral: 80 mg / day in 4 divided doses 30 - 60 minutes before meals. Depending on the patient`s response dose can be increased to 160 mg / day in 4 divided doses after 1 week.
Infant colic: 5 - 10 mg every 6 - 8 hours, 15 minutes before each feed; dose is depending on the patient`s response and age.
Schedule of DicyclomineHStorage Requirements for DicyclomineStore at 15 - 30 degree C in a tightly closed container. Protect from light.Keep out of the reach of children
Effects of Missed Dosage of DicyclomineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of DicyclomineGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal. Physostigmine is given to block the overdose symptoms of Dicyclomine.
ParacetamolAbout ParacetamolAcetanilide derivative, Non narcotic Analgesic,Antipyretic.Mechanism of Action of ParacetamolParacetamol has analgesic and antipyretic action.
It is more active on cyclo-oxygenase enzyme in brain. Peripherally it is a poor inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis.
Analgesic action: Paracetamol raises the pain threshold and produces analgesic effect.
Antipyretic action: Paracetamol lowers fever by direct action on the thermoregulatory centre in the Hypothalamus and block the effects of endogenous pyrogen.
Pharmacokinets of ParacetamolAbsorption: Paracetamol is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: It is distributed mostly in the body in unbound form.
Metabolism: It is extensively metabolised in the liver.
Excretion: Excreted in the urine.
Onset of Action for Paracetamol30 - 60 minutesDuration of Action for Paracetamol6 hoursHalf Life of Paracetamol1-4 hoursSide Effects of Paracetamol1. Nausea
2. Abdominal distress
3. Allergic reactions
Contra-indications of Paracetamol1. Hypersensitivity to ParacetamolSpecial Precautions while taking Paracetamol1. Hepatic impairment
2. Renal impairment
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Contraindicated
Indications for Paracetamol1. To relieve pain and fever
2. Acute gout
Interactions for ParacetamolCholestyramine: Reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Charcoal: Activated, administered immediately reduces absorption of paracetamol.
Domperidone and metochlopramide: Enhance absorption of paracetamol.
Alcohol: Chronic excessive ingestion of alcohol potentiates hepatotoxicity of paracetamol.
Zidovudine: Effects zidovudine may be decreased.Typical Dosage for ParacetamolAdult:
500 - 1000 mg in 3 times daily
Maximum dose: 4 g / day
For migraine: 500 mg to be taken at the first sign of migraine attack and repeated 4 - 6 hourly until suppress mild attacks.
60 mg / kg body weight /day in 4 divided doses.
Schedule of ParacetamolHStorage Requirements for ParacetamolStore at 15-30 degree C in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of ParacetamolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of ParacetamolGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal. N-acetylcysteine is the specific antidote for Paracetamol poisoning. Dose: 150 mg /kg body weight as IV infusion over 15 minutes followed by same dose over 20 hours.
Maintenance dose: 75 mg / kg orally every 4 - 6 hours for 2 - 3 days. Haemodialysis can be done in emergency conditions.
Mefenamic AcidAbout Mefenamic AcidNSAID, Analgesic,antiinflammatory.Mechanism of Action of Mefenamic AcidMefenamic acid has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic action. It acts by inhibiting Prostaglandin (PGs) synthesis and their release at the site of injury. Prostaglandins cause tenderness and amplify the action of other analgesics. Mefenamic acid inhibits cyclo-oxygenase enzyme and antagonizes prostaglandin actions.Pharmacokinets of Mefenamic AcidAbsorption: Mefenamic acid is well absorbed after oral administration. Distribution: It is distributed in the body in protein bound form. Metabolism: It is metabolised in the liver. Excretion: Mefenamic acid and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine.Onset of Action for Mefenamic Acid1-2 hours.Duration of Action for Mefenamic Acid6 hours.Half Life of Mefenamic Acid2-4 hours.Side Effects of Mefenamic Acid1.Nausea
Contra-indications of Mefenamic Acid1.Hypersensitivity to Mefenamic acid and other NSAIDs
2.Inflammatory bowel disease
Special Precautions while taking Mefenamic Acid1.Hepatic impairment
5.Pre existing asthma
6.Patient on anticoagulant therapy
9.StrokePregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationBelow 14 years: contraindicated
NEONATES: used only to close the patent ductus arteriosus as IV form only
Indications for Mefenamic Acid1.Muscular aches
6.Patent ductus arteriosus
Interactions for Mefenamic AcidN/ATypical Dosage for Mefenamic AcidAdult: initial dose: 500 mg followed by 250 mg every 6 hours. Treatment is continued maximum up to 1 week.
Children above 14 years:
500 mg followed by 250 mg every 6 hours. Treatment is continued maximum up to 1 week.
Children below 14 years: not recommended.
Schedule of Mefenamic AcidHStorage Requirements for Mefenamic AcidStore Mefenamic acid at room temperature in a tightly closed light resistant container.Effects of Missed Dosage of Mefenamic AcidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Mefenamic AcidGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Drug can be removed from the body by gastric lavage or by inducing emesis. Absorption of the drug can be reduced by administration of activated charcoal.
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