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- Pharmacology For Pipenzolate methylbromide + Phenobarbitone
Pipenzolate methylbromide + Phenobarbitone Pharmacology
Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneAbout Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AMechanism of Action of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/APharmacokinets of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AOnset of Action for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/ADuration of Action for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AHalf Life of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/ASide Effects of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AContra-indications of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AInteractions for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/ATypical Dosage for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/ASchedule of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AStorage Requirements for Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/AEffects of Overdose of Pipenzolate methylbromide + PhenobarbitoneN/A
Pipenzolate MethylbromideAbout Pipenzolate MethylbromideIt is an antimuscarinic (anticholinergics) drug.Mechanism of Action of Pipenzolate MethylbromidePipenzolate methyl bromide is an anticholinergic drug. It exerts its action by inhibiting muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors on smooth muscles and prevents the effect of Acetylcholine. Inhibition of Acetylcholine produces relaxation of smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract and reduces the painful spasm and cramp.
It does not produce CNS effect
Pharmacokinets of Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/AOnset of Action for Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/ADuration of Action for Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/AHalf Life of Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/ASide Effects of Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/AContra-indications of Pipenzolate Methylbromide1. Intestinal obstruction
2. Paralytic ileus
3. Undiagnosed abdominal pain
Special Precautions while taking Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/APregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with caution
NEONATES : Use with caution
Indications for Pipenzolate Methylbromide1. Gastro intestinal spasm
2. Flatulent dyspepsia
Interactions for Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/ATypical Dosage for Pipenzolate MethylbromideOral :
Adult: 5 - 10 mg /day in 3 divided doses 30 minutes before food
Children: 2 - 3 mg / day in divided doses
Children above 3 years: 1 ml 4 times daily
6 -12 months: 8 - 10 drops
Below 6 months: 4 drop before each principal feed.
Schedule of Pipenzolate MethylbromideN/AStorage Requirements for Pipenzolate MethylbromideStore in a cool dry place in a tightly closed container. Protect from heat and light. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of Pipenzolate MethylbromideTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Pipenzolate MethylbromideGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.
PhenobarbitoneAbout PhenobarbitoneBarbiturate derivative, Sedative-Hypnotic,Anticonvulsant.Mechanism of Action of PhenobarbitoneSedative and antiepileptic actions: Phenobarbitone mainly acts on Picrotoxin site of GABA -BZD receptor Cl- (chloride ion) channel complex. It prolongs the duration of GABA induced chloride channel opening and produces hyperpolarisation and decreases firing rate of neurons. This will alters the normal body functions. Phenobarbitone also has GABA mimetic action. At high concentrations Phenobarbitone directly increases chloride ion conductance and decreases transmission of calcium ion (Ca2+ ) dependent neurotransmitters. Phenobarbitone also inhibits excitatory glutamate neurotransmitters. At high concentration it also inhibits sodium ion channel and potassium ion channel. Phenobarbitone is used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures.
Barbiturates activate inhibitory GABA-A receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors and produces CNS depression.
Pharmacokinets of PhenobarbitoneAbsorption: It is well absorbed after oral administration. Distribution: It is widely distributed in the body. Metabolism: It is metabolised in the liver. Excretion: It is excreted mainly through urine.Onset of Action for Phenobarbitone1 hourDuration of Action for Phenobarbitone10 - 12 hourHalf Life of Phenobarbitone5 - 7 daysSide Effects of Phenobarbitone1.Hang over
17.Exacerbation of Porphyria
18.DependnceContra-indications of Phenobarbitone1.Hypersensitivity to Phenobarbitone and other barbiturates
5.Obstructive sleeps apnoeaSpecial Precautions while taking Phenobarbitone1.Cardiovascular diseases
2.Patient with acute or chronic pain
5. Drug abuse
7. Debilitated patients
8. Driving vehicles, operating machines and people involving any other dangerous activities
9. Slowly withdraw the drug with caution
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Phenobarbitone1.Anticonvulsant
2.Sedative.Interactions for PhenobarbitoneAlcohol & other CNS Depressants (other sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, antihistamines, tranquilizers, phenothiazines): Additive CNS depression.
Valproic acid: Increases efficacy of barbiturates. Half life of valproic acid may be decreased.
Chloramphenicol: Efficacy of barbiturates increased. Barbiturates may decrease efficacy of chloramphenicol.
MAOIs: Effects of barbiturates prolonged.
Efficacy of the following drugs decreased by barbiturates: Oral anticoagulants, digitoxin, TCAs, corticosteroids, doxycycline, oral contraceptives and estrogens, acetaminophen, beta-blockers, quinidine, rifampicin, theophylline and metronidazole.
Phenytoin: Effect on phenytoin metabolism is unpredictable.
Frusemide: May produce or aggravate orthostatic hypotension.
Griseofulvin: Interferes with absorption of oral griseofulvin leading to decreased blood levels.Typical Dosage for PhenobarbitoneAdult
Anticonvulsant (Not used for absence and febrile seizure): 60 - 180 mg / day at bed time or 3 divided doses
Sedation: 30 - 120 mg / day in 2 or 3 divided doses
Insomnia: 100 - 200 mg/ day
Maximum dose: 400 mg / day
Anticonvulsant: 1 - 8 mg / kg body weight / day in single dose or 2 divided dose.
Sedation: 8 - 32 mg/ day
Schedule of PhenobarbitoneX DRUGStorage Requirements for PhenobarbitoneStore at 15 - 25 degree C in a tightly closed container. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of PhenobarbitoneTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time to take the next dose then skip the missed dose.Effects of Overdose of PhenobarbitoneGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Induce emesis or gastric lavage has to be done. Charcoal can be given to reduce the absorption of the drug. Urine alkalinization also helps to reduce the absorption of the drug. Haemodialysis can be done in severe cases.
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