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- Pharmacology For Vildagliptin + Metformin
Vildagliptin + Metformin Pharmacology
Vildagliptin + MetforminAbout Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AMechanism of Action of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/APharmacokinets of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AOnset of Action for Vildagliptin + MetforminN/ADuration of Action for Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AHalf Life of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/ASide Effects of Vildagliptin + Metformin1.Disturbances of the gut such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain.
2.Loss of appetite.
Contra-indications of Vildagliptin + Metformin1.Type 1 diabetes.
3.Diabetic pre-coma (due to ketoacidosis in severe and inadequately treated diabetes).
4.Decreased kidney function or kidney failure.
5.Decreased liver function.
7.People who have recently had a heart attack.
8.People with conditions that cause breathing to be ineffective, ie to not effectively oxygenate the blood or remove carbon dioxide from the lungs (respiratory failure).
9.People with reduced blood flow to vital internal organs (shock).
10.Severe infections or trauma.
Special Precautions while taking Vildagliptin + MetforminPeople taking ACE inhibitor medicines.Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationNot recommendedIndications for Vildagliptin + MetforminPatients with type 2 diabetes whose blood sugar is not controlled by the maximum tolerated dose of metformin alone.Interactions for Vildagliptin + MetforminN/ATypical Dosage for Vildagliptin + MetforminN/ASchedule of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AStorage Requirements for Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/AEffects of Overdose of Vildagliptin + MetforminN/A
VILDAGLIPTINAbout VILDAGLIPTINAntidiabetic agent, Oral hypoglycaemic agent for type 2 diabetesMechanism of Action of VILDAGLIPTINVildagliptin is a dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that improves glycaemic control by preventing DPP-4 from inactivating the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, thus prolonging incretin activity in response to ingestion of nutrients. This increases insulin sensitivity, decreases glucagon secretion and improves ?-cell functionPharmacokinets of VILDAGLIPTINAbsorption: Absorbed rapidly after oral administration
Metabolism: Metabolism is mainly by hydrolysis in kidney
Excretion: Excretion accounts for 85% in urine and 15% in faeces
Onset of Action for VILDAGLIPTINN/ADuration of Action for VILDAGLIPTINN/AHalf Life of VILDAGLIPTIN2 to 3 hrsSide Effects of VILDAGLIPTIN1.Hypoglycaemia
2.Delayed gastric emptying
3.Nausea and Vomiting
Contra-indications of VILDAGLIPTINHypersensitivity to these drugSpecial Precautions while taking VILDAGLIPTINRenal ImpairmentPregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContraindicatedIndications for VILDAGLIPTINType 2 Diabetes MellitusInteractions for VILDAGLIPTINIncreased risk of hypoglycaemia when used with other anti-diabetic agentsTypical Dosage for VILDAGLIPTIN50 mg bid when used with metformin or a thiazolidinedione or 50 mg once daily in the morning when used with a sulfonylureaSchedule of VILDAGLIPTINN/AStorage Requirements for VILDAGLIPTINStore in a well closed container below 30 degree celcius. Protect from moisture. Keep out of the reach of childrenEffects of Missed Dosage of VILDAGLIPTINN/AEffects of Overdose of VILDAGLIPTINN/A
MetforminAbout MetforminBiguanide derivative, Oral anti-diabetic.Mechanism of Action of MetforminIt is a biguanide which exerts antidiabetic action. The drug suppresses gluconeogenesis in liver and thus suppresses hepatic glucose output. It enhance insulin mediated glucose disposal in muscle and adipose tissue. It enhance GLUT1 (glucose transporter-1) transport from intracellular site to plasma membrane. It also interferes with respiratory chain in mitochondria and promotes peripheral glucose utilization by increasing anaerobic glycolysis. It inhibits intestinal absorption of glucose, other hexose sugars, amino acids and vitamin B12. It also improves lipid profile in type-2 diabetics.Pharmacokinets of MetforminAbsorption: Absorbed orally and bioavailability is about 50% to60%. Distribution: It is distributed in to erythrocytes, Metabolism: Not metabolized in the body, Excretion: Excreted mainly through urine.Onset of Action for MetforminN/ADuration of Action for Metformin6 to 8 hoursHalf Life of Metformin1.5 to 3hoursSide Effects of Metformin1. Abdominal pain
5. Metalic taste
6. Mild diarrhea
8. Small increase in blood lactate
9. Lactic acidosis (rare)
10. Vitamin B12 deficiency
11. Megaloblastic anaemia
Contra-indications of Metformin1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Renal impairment
3. Hepatic impairment
4. Diabetic ketoacidosis
5. Cardiovascular collapse
6. Hypotensive states
7. Respiratory disease
Special Precautions while taking Metformin1. Alcohol intake can precipitate severe lactic acidosis
2. Vitamin B12deficiency
3. In malnourished and deliberate individuals
4. Adrenal insufficiency
5. Pituitary insufficiency.
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContraindicatedIndications for MetforminNon-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (as adjunct to diet and exercise).Interactions for MetforminN/ATypical Dosage for MetforminAdults: Initial dose: 250mg twice or thrice daily with meals. Increase gradually at 2 week intervals, if required to a maximum of 3g daily.
Children: Not applicable. Schedule of MetforminGStorage Requirements for MetforminStore at room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C. in a well closed container.Keep out of reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of MetforminTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the doseEffects of Overdose of MetforminProvide supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Remove accumulated drug from the body by haemodialysis.
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