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- Pharmacology For Moxonidine + Amlodipine
Moxonidine + Amlodipine Pharmacology
Moxonidine + AmlodipineAbout Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AMechanism of Action of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/APharmacokinets of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AOnset of Action for Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/ADuration of Action for Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AHalf Life of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/ASide Effects of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AContra-indications of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/APregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContraindicatedIndications for Moxonidine + AmlodipineHypertensionInteractions for Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/ATypical Dosage for Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/ASchedule of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AStorage Requirements for Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/AEffects of Overdose of Moxonidine + AmlodipineN/A
MoxonidineAbout MoxonidineCentrally-acting antihypertensive.Mechanism of Action of MoxonidineMoxonidine is a centrally-acting antihypertensive. It acts in the brainstem through stimulation of central imidazoline receptors to reduce sympathetic tone. Moxonidine also has a low affinity for ?2-adrenoceptors.Pharmacokinets of MoxonidineAbsorption: Absorbed rapidly from the GI tract
Distribution: Plasma protein binding around 7%; present in breast milk
Excretion: Excreted in the urine (78% as unchanged drug)
Onset of Action for MoxonidineN/ADuration of Action for MoxonidineN/AHalf Life of MoxonidineN/ASide Effects of Moxonidine1.Dry mouth
16.Impotence and loss of libido
17.Urinary retention or incontinence
18.Slight orthostastic hypotension
Contra-indications of Moxonidine1.Conduction disorders
4.Severe heart failure
5.Severe ischaemic heart disease
6.History of angioedema
7.Severe liver or renal impairment
Special Precautions while taking Moxonidine1.Renal impairment
2.Avoid abrupt withdrawal (if concomitant treatment with ?-blocker has to be stopped, discontinue ?-blocker first, then moxonidine after few days)
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationContra indicatedaged under 18 years.Indications for MoxonidineHypertensionInteractions for Moxonidine1.Additive effects with other antihypertensives
2.May increase sedative effects of benzodiazepines
3.Effects may be antagonised by TCAS
Typical Dosage for MoxonidineHypertension:Oral:Adult: 200 mcg once daily, increase if necessary after 3 wk to 400 mcg daily as single or in 2 divided doses. If necessary, after a further 3 wk, increase to 600 mcg daily in 2 divided doses. Max: 600 mcg daily.Schedule of MoxonidineN/AStorage Requirements for MoxonidineDo not store above 25?C. Effects of Missed Dosage of MoxonidineIf you miss a dose ignore it and take the next dose at the normal time. Do not take two doses together to make up for the one you have missed. Effects of Overdose of Moxonidine1.Taking too much moxonidine may cause the following: sedation (confusion and sleepiness), low or high blood pressure, dizziness, fainting, sickness, dry mouth, slowing of heart rate, shortness of breath, narrowing of the pupil of the eye (miosis) and coma.
2.People who have taken too much moxonidine should call a doctor or go to the nearest hospital casualty department immediately.
AmlodipineAbout AmlodipineCalcium Channel Blocker, Anti hypertensive,anti angina.Mechanism of Action of AmlodipineAmlodipine is a second generation dihydropyridine Ca channel blocker. It exerts it`s antihypertensive, antianginal actions through blocking the influx of Ca ions through voltage gated L-type Ca channels to the peripheral vascular smooth muscle cells, Coronary smooth muscle cells and to the myocardial cells. Thus causes dilatation of vascular endothelium, decrease peripheral resistance, & reduce myocardial oxygen demand .It markedly relax arterioles and milder effects on veins. They do not compromise haemodynamics and cerebral and renal perfusion.Pharmacokinets of AmlodipineAbsorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed in a protein bound form, Metabolism: Metabolized in liver, but there is no active metabolite.Onset of Action for AmlodipineSlowDuration of Action for Amlodipine24 hoursHalf Life of AmlodipineN/ASide Effects of Amlodipine1.Palpitation
12.Aggravates myocardial ischaemia
Contra-indications of Amlodipine1.Heart failure
3.Hypersensitivity to the drug
6.Along with other anti hypertensive drugs.
Special Precautions while taking Amlodipine1.Cardiovascular disorders: Use cautiously in cardiovascular disorders because it aggravates myocardial ischaemia.
2.Sick sinus syndrome
4.Use cautiously along with other antihypertensive drugs,
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicated.Old Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with caution.Children Related InformationContraindicatedIndications for Amlodipine1.Hypertension
3.Stable anginaInteractions for AmlodipineACE inhibitors, Thiazide diuretics: Potentiates effect of these drugs.
Beta Blockers: Best avoided, especially by those with impaired LV function due to depressant effect on myocardial contractibility or AV conduction.
Fentanyl: Severe hypotension or increased fluid volume requirements.Typical Dosage for Amlodipine5 mg once daily.
Maximum dose: 10mg/day
Prinzmetal`s angina and Stable angina:
5 to 10mg once daily.
Hypertension: 2.5 to 5mg once daily. Dose may increase up to 10mg once daily as required by the individual needs.
.Schedule of AmlodipineHStorage Requirements for AmlodipineStore at room temperature below 30 degree C. Protect from moisture and light.
Effects of Missed Dosage of AmlodipineTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of AmlodipineMonitor &support cardiac and respiratory functions. Measure the BP. Give cardiovascular support by elevating the limbs and maintaining fluid balance. Administer vasopressers like nor epinephrine and Calcium gluconate if required.
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