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- Pharmacology For Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ Oil
Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ Oil Pharmacology
Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilAbout Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AMechanism of Action of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/APharmacokinets of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AOnset of Action for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/ADuration of Action for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AHalf Life of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/ASide Effects of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AContra-indications of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/APregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilNutritional supplementInteractions for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/ATypical Dosage for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/ASchedule of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AStorage Requirements for Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/AEffects of Overdose of Folic Acid + Mecobalamin + Cod Liver Oil + Biotin + Wheat Germ OilN/A
Folic AcidAbout Folic AcidDietary supplement, Folate derivative( B9 ), Water Soluble Vitamin.Mechanism of Action of Folic AcidFolic acid reduced by enzymes folate reductase and dihydrofolate reductase and forms dihydrofolic acid tetrahydrofolic acid respectively. Tetrahydrofolic acid acts as a coenzyme which mediates a number of one carbon transfer reactions by carrying a methyl group as an adduct. It involves a number of reactions such as 1).conversion of homocysteine to methionine. 2).synthesis of thymidylate which is an essential constituent of DNA from methylene-tetrahydrofolic acid. 3). Conversion of serine to glycine by tetrahydrofolic acid and forms methylene-tetrahydrofolic acid. 4).to introduce carbon units at position 2 and 8 during de novo purine synthesis requires formyl-tetrahydrofolic acid and methenyl-tetrahydrofolic acid.5).generation and utilization of "formate pool". 6).For mediating formino group transfer in histidine metabolism. Folic acid is required to maintain normal erythropoiesis and nucleoprotein synthesis.Pharmacokinets of Folic AcidAbsorption: Well absorbed orally
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body and highest concentration is seen in liver. It appears in the CSF and breast milk
Metabolism: Metabolized in to N-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid in liver
Excretion: Extra drug is excreted unchanged in urine. A small portion of folate is lost by a combination of urinary and fecal excretion and oxidative cleavage of molecule.
Onset of Action for Folic AcidOral: 20 to 30minutes
I.V.: 5 minutes
I.M.:10 to 20minutes
Duration of Action for Folic AcidOral: 3 to 6 hours
I.V.:3 to 6minutes
I.M.:3 to 6hours
Half Life of Folic AcidN/ASide Effects of Folic AcidN/AContra-indications of Folic AcidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Folic Acid1. In patients with undiagnosed anaemia; because it may mask pernicious anaemia
2. In pernicious anaemia and other megaloblastic where vitamin B12 is deficient
Pregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationMay be usedIndications for Folic Acid1. Megaloblastic anaemia
2. Folic acid deficiency
3. Anaemias of pregnancy
4. Nutritional anaemia
6. Tropical sprue
7. Non tropical sprue
Interactions for Folic Acid1. Hypersensitivity reactions with injection form
Typical Dosage for Folic AcidOral: 5mg 1 to 4 times daily; depending up on the severity of deficiency.
Maintenance dosage: Half of the therapeutic dosage.
Children: 2.5 to 5mg 1 to 2 times daily.
Schedule of Folic AcidC1 (Oral)
Storage Requirements for Folic AcidStore at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 25 degree C in a well closed container. Protect from excess heat, light and moisture.Effects of Missed Dosage of Folic AcidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Folic AcidRelatively non toxic. Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
MecobalaminAbout MecobalaminWater soluble, Form of Vitamin B12Mechanism of Action of MecobalaminMecobalamin is the neurologically active form of vitamin B12 and occurs as a water-soluble vitamin in the body. It is a cofactor in the enzyme methionine synthase, which functions to transfer methyl groups for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. In anaemia, it increases erythrocyte production by promoting nucleic acid synthesis in the bone marrow and by promoting maturation and division of erythrocytes.Pharmacokinets of MecobalaminAbsorption: Absorbed after oral, sublingual, injection
Excretion: Excretion via urine
Onset of Action for MecobalaminN/ADuration of Action for MecobalaminN/AHalf Life of MecobalaminN/ASide Effects of Mecobalamin1.Oral: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
2.Parenteral: Rash, headache, hot sensation, diaphoresis and pain/induration at IM inj site
Contra-indications of MecobalaminN/ASpecial Precautions while taking MecobalaminN/APregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Mecobalamin1.Peripheral neuropathies
Interactions for Mecobalamin1.Decreased GI tract absorption with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, H2-blockers and colchicines
2.Reduced serum concentrations with oral contraceptives
3.Reduced effects in anaemia with parenteral chloramphenicol
Typical Dosage for MecobalaminPeripheral neuropathies
Oral: Adult: 1500 mcg/day in 3 divided doses
Parenteral: 500 mcg daily IM/IV 3 times/wk
Megaloblastic anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency
Parenteral: Adult: 500 mcg daily IM/IV 3 times/wk. Maintenance dose: After about 2 mth of therapy, reduce dose to single admin of 500 mcg every 1-3 mth.Schedule of MecobalaminN/AStorage Requirements for MecobalaminOral: Store at room temperature. Protect from moisture and light.
Parenteral: Store at room temperature. Do not expose to direct light.
Effects of Missed Dosage of MecobalaminN/AEffects of Overdose of MecobalaminN/A
Cod liver oilAbout Cod liver oilCod liver oil is a good source of long chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid .Approximately 7% of cod liver oil is EPA and about 7% DHA by weight.
Cod liver oil is a rich source of vitamin A. In fact, one teaspoon of cod liver oil has 4,500 IU of vitamin A; one capsule generally provides 1,250 IU of vitamin A.
Cod liver oil is a source of vitamin D. One capsule contains approximately 130 IU of vitamin D.
The most conclusive research with cod liver oil indicates that this supplement reduces the pain and inflammation associated with arthritis
Mechanism of Action of Cod liver oilN/APharmacokinets of Cod liver oilN/AOnset of Action for Cod liver oilN/ADuration of Action for Cod liver oilN/AHalf Life of Cod liver oilN/ASide Effects of Cod liver oil1.Belching
5.Taking cod liver oil with meals can often decrease these side effects.
Contra-indications of Cod liver oilN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Cod liver oilN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Cod liver oil1.For lowering triglycerides
2.For lowering high cholesterol
3.For lowering blood pressure
Interactions for Cod liver oil1.Warfarin:The risk of abnormal bleeding is increased when warfarin is taken with high-dose supplements of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A. Vitamin A and warfarin should not be combined unless supervised by a physician or pharmacist.
2.Cod liver oil seems to decrease blood pressure. Taking cod liver oil along with medications for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.
3.Retinoid drugs, such as tretinoin (Retin-A), isotretinoin (Accutane), and 13-cis as well as all-trans-retinoic acids, are structurally similar to vitamin A. They are used topically and systemically for the reduction of acne and the appearance of wrinkles. People using these compounds should avoid vitamin A-containing supplements such as cod liver oil to avoid possible toxicity.
Typical Dosage for Cod liver oil1.For lowering triglycerides: 20 mL of cod liver oil per day.
2.For high cholesterol: 30 mL of cod liver oil per day.
3.For lowering blood pressure: 20 mL of cod liver oil per day.
Schedule of Cod liver oilN/AStorage Requirements for Cod liver oilN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Cod liver oilN/AEffects of Overdose of Cod liver oilN/A
BiotinAbout BiotinN/AMechanism of Action of BiotinBiotin excerts it`s pharmacological action by influencing metabolic reactions. It acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It is required for cell growth and production of fatty acids. It is required for healthy maintenance of hair, skin, sweat glands, nerve tissue, and bone marrow. It also helps in the transfer of carbon dioxide and in the maintenance of a steady blood sugar level.Pharmacokinets of BiotinAbsorption: Well absorbed orally, Excretion: Extra drug is excreted unchanged in urine.Onset of Action for BiotinN/ADuration of Action for BiotinN/AHalf Life of BiotinN/ASide Effects of BiotinN/AContra-indications of BiotinHypersensitivity of any biotin products.Special Precautions while taking BiotinN/APregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Biotin1.Biotin deficiency
4.Prevent diabetic neuropathy and lower blood glucose levels in diabetic patients
Interactions for BiotinN/ATypical Dosage for BiotinOral: 30 to 70mcg daily. Increased up to 300mcg/day if required based on the severity of deficiency.
Pregnancy: 30mcg daily
Lactation: 35mcg daily
Prevent brittle nails: 2.5mg/day.
Schedule of BiotinC1Storage Requirements for BiotinStore in a cool dry area in a well closed container. Protects from moisture, light and direct heat.Effects of Missed Dosage of BiotinTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of BiotinProvide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.
Wheat Germ OilAbout Wheat Germ OilNutritional supplement,skin protectant.Mechanism of Action of Wheat Germ OilThe benefits of this oil include curing skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema. It works effectively to heal burns and skin ulcers. As an external application it is very helpful for dry skin. It also helps the skin cells that may have been damaged due to the scorching heat of the sun. It also fights off conditions like dermatitis and reduces scarring.Wheat germ oil is beneficial for the general health of the skin as it improves circulation of blood in the skin when used externally. Wheat germ oil is known for its antioxidant properties. Hence it helps in preventing the skin from bearing the signs of aging. Wheat germ oil has high vitamin E content and so it can be used to treat vitiligo.
Health benefits of this oil include improving the overall working of the heart. Effective in controlling production of cholesterol by the liver.
Linoleic acid, oleic palmitic and stearic fatty acids are the essential fatty acids present in wheat germ oil. These essential oils cannot be manufactured by the body.
Pharmacokinets of Wheat Germ OilN/AOnset of Action for Wheat Germ OilN/ADuration of Action for Wheat Germ OilN/AHalf Life of Wheat Germ OilN/ASide Effects of Wheat Germ OilN/AContra-indications of Wheat Germ OilN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Wheat Germ OilN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Wheat Germ OilN/AInteractions for Wheat Germ OilN/ATypical Dosage for Wheat Germ OilN/ASchedule of Wheat Germ OilN/AStorage Requirements for Wheat Germ OilN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Wheat Germ OilN/AEffects of Overdose of Wheat Germ OilN/A
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