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- Pharmacology For Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + Gabapentin
Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + Gabapentin Pharmacology
Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinAbout Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AMechanism of Action of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/APharmacokinets of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AOnset of Action for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/ADuration of Action for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AHalf Life of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/ASide Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AContra-indications of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/APregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + Gabapentin1.Alcoholic neuropathy
3.Drug induced neuropathy
Interactions for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/ATypical Dosage for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/ASchedule of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AStorage Requirements for Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/AEffects of Overdose of Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Mecobalamin + GabapentinN/A
Alpha-Lipoic acidAbout Alpha-Lipoic acidNaturally occurring dithiol compound , antioxidant, Agent for neuropathies.Mechanism of Action of Alpha-Lipoic acidAlpha-lipoic acid and its reduced metabolite, Dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), form a redox couple and may scavenge a wide range of reactive oxygen species. Alpha-lipoic acid has been found to decrease urinary isoprostanes, O-LDL and plasma protein carbonyls, markers of oxidative stress. Further, alpha-lipoic acid and its redox couple DHLA have been found to have antioxidant activity in aqueous, as well as in lipophilic regions, and in extra cellular and intracellular environments. Alpha-lipoic acid participates in the recycling of other important biologic antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C, Ubiquinone and glutathione.
Both alpha-lipoic acid and DHLA can scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the nitric oxide radical, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite. Alpha-lipoic acid may scavenge singlet oxygen, and DHLA may scavenge super oxide and peroxyl reactive oxygen species.
Pharmacokinets of Alpha-Lipoic acidAbsorption: Alpha-lipoic acid is absorbed from the small intestine. The natural R-entantiomer is more readily absorbed than the L-entantiomer and is the more active form.
Distribution:It is distributed to the liver via the portal circulation and to various tissues in the body via the systemic circulation. . Alpha-lipoic acid readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is found, after its distribution to the various body tissues, intracellularly, intramitochondrialy and extracellularly.Metabolism: Alpha-lipoic acid is metabolized to its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), by mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase enzyme. DHLA, together with lipoic acid, form a redox couple. It is also metabolized to lipoamide, which functions as the lipoic acid cofactor in the multienzyme complexes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylations of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate. Alpha-lipoic acid may be metabolized to dithiol octanoic acid, which can undergo catabolism.
Onset of Action for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ADuration of Action for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/AHalf Life of Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ASide Effects of Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Nausea
2.VomitingContra-indications of Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Contraindicated during radiotherapySpecial Precautions while taking Alpha-Lipoic acidPatient with diabetes and problems with glucose intolerancePregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Alpha-Lipoic acid1.Diabetic neuropathy
2.It may help prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and may be protective, generally, against oxidative stress and, specifically, against atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury and various radiologic and chemical toxins.
3.It may also be useful in some inborn metabolic disordersInteractions for Alpha-Lipoic acidN/ATypical Dosage for Alpha-Lipoic acidAdult: up to 600 milligrams daily
Diabetic neuropathy: 300 milligrams daily taken in divided doses.Schedule of Alpha-Lipoic acidN/AStorage Requirements for Alpha-Lipoic acidStore at room temperature away from moisture and heat.Keep out of the reach of children. Keep the medicine from freezing. Do not refrigerate.Effects of Missed Dosage of Alpha-Lipoic acidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Continue the regular schedule.Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Alpha-Lipoic acidGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.
MecobalaminAbout MecobalaminWater soluble, Form of Vitamin B12Mechanism of Action of MecobalaminMecobalamin is the neurologically active form of vitamin B12 and occurs as a water-soluble vitamin in the body. It is a cofactor in the enzyme methionine synthase, which functions to transfer methyl groups for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. In anaemia, it increases erythrocyte production by promoting nucleic acid synthesis in the bone marrow and by promoting maturation and division of erythrocytes.Pharmacokinets of MecobalaminAbsorption: Absorbed after oral, sublingual, injection
Excretion: Excretion via urine
Onset of Action for MecobalaminN/ADuration of Action for MecobalaminN/AHalf Life of MecobalaminN/ASide Effects of Mecobalamin1.Oral: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
2.Parenteral: Rash, headache, hot sensation, diaphoresis and pain/induration at IM inj site
Contra-indications of MecobalaminN/ASpecial Precautions while taking MecobalaminN/APregnancy Related InformationMay be usedOld Age Related InformationMay be usedBreast Feeding Related InformationMay be usedChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Mecobalamin1.Peripheral neuropathies
Interactions for Mecobalamin1.Decreased GI tract absorption with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, H2-blockers and colchicines
2.Reduced serum concentrations with oral contraceptives
3.Reduced effects in anaemia with parenteral chloramphenicol
Typical Dosage for MecobalaminPeripheral neuropathies
Oral: Adult: 1500 mcg/day in 3 divided doses
Parenteral: 500 mcg daily IM/IV 3 times/wk
Megaloblastic anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency
Parenteral: Adult: 500 mcg daily IM/IV 3 times/wk. Maintenance dose: After about 2 mth of therapy, reduce dose to single admin of 500 mcg every 1-3 mth.Schedule of MecobalaminN/AStorage Requirements for MecobalaminOral: Store at room temperature. Protect from moisture and light.
Parenteral: Store at room temperature. Do not expose to direct light.
Effects of Missed Dosage of MecobalaminN/AEffects of Overdose of MecobalaminN/A
GabapentinAbout GabapentinA GABA analogue, Anticonvulsant, Mood stabilizer.Mechanism of Action of GabapentinGabapentin is a GABA derivative and it bounds to lipophilic molecule. The mechanism of action of Gabapentin is not exactly known. It crosses blood brain barrier and enhances release of GABA.Pharmacokinets of GabapentinAbsorption: It is not well absorbed after oral administration. The bioavailability is not dose dependent. Distribution: Gabapentin is distributed in the body in unbound form. Drug crosses blood brain barrier. Metabolism: Gabapentin undergoes insignificant metabolism. Excretion: Drug is excreted mainly in urine.Onset of Action for GabapentinWithin few weeksDuration of Action for Gabapentin6 - 8 hoursHalf Life of Gabapentin5 -8hoursSide Effects of Gabapentin1.Dizziness
Contra-indications of Gabapentin1.Hypersensitivity to GabapentinSpecial Precautions while taking Gabapentin1.Renal impairment
2.Slowly withdraw the drug with caution
3.Use caution when driving vehicle, operating machine or performing other hazardous activities.
Pregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with caution.Breast Feeding Related InformationUse with caution.Children Related InformationUse with caution.
NEONATES: contraindicatedIndications for Gabapentin1.Antiepileptic(Treatment of partial seizure)
2.Treatment of neuropathic pain
Interactions for GabapentinN/ATypical Dosage for GabapentinAdult: Initial dose: 300 mg / day increase the dose by 300 mg/day for next 2 days (up to 900 mg / day in 3 divided doses). Thereafter increase the dose until sufficient therapeutic response is obtained.
Maintenance dose: 900-1800mg /day in 3 divided doses
Maximum dose: 3.6 g /day
Children above 12 years: 10mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses, then gradually increase the dose until sufficient therapeutic response is obtained.
Schedule of GabapentinN/AStorage Requirements for GabapentinStore at 15 - 30 degree C. Protect from heat and moisture.Store the Gabapentin solution at refrigerator.Effects of Missed Dosage of GabapentinTake the missed dose as soon as noticed. If it the time for next dose then skips the missed dose and continue the regular schedule. Do not double the doseEffects of Overdose of GabapentinGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Haemodialysis can be done if needed
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