Chloramphenicol Pharmacology


About Chloramphenicol
Bacteriostatic antibiotic, A systemic broad ? spectrum antibacterial agent.
Mechanism of Action of Chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic which is primarily bacteriostatic & exerts some bactericidal action at higher concentration. It acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Chloramphenicol attaches to 50S subunit of ribosome and interfering with transfer of elongating peptide chain to the newly attached aminoacyl-tRNA at the ribosome-m RNA complex. It prevents the access of aminoacyl-tRNA to the acceptor site for amino acid incorporation. By acting as a peptide analogue it inhibits peptide bond formation
Pharmacokinets of Chloramphenicol
Absorption: Well absorbed orally, Distribution: Widely distributed & good CSF penetration. It is secreted in bile & milk Metabolism: It is conjugated with glucuronic acid in liver, Excretion: Excreted mainly in urine.

Onset of Action for Chloramphenicol
7 hours

Duration of Action for Chloramphenicol
Up to 3 days
Half Life of Chloramphenicol
3 to 5 hours
Side Effects of Chloramphenicol
1.Bone marrow depression
2.Aplastic anaemia
5.Gray baby syndrome
6.Super infections
7.Rashes & Hypersensitivity reactions
12.Pain at injection site
Contra-indications of Chloramphenicol
1.Hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol
2.As a prophylactic agent in infections & In the treatment of trivial infections

Special Precautions while taking Chloramphenicol
1.Renal impairment
2.Hepatic impairment
3.Concurrent use of other drugs which cause bone marrow suppression
5.G6PD deficiency
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
May be used.
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Neonates: Contraindicated
Indications for Chloramphenicol
1.Meningitis caused by H. influenzae
2.Typhoid fever
3.Brain abscesses
4.Wound infections
5.Pelvic inflammatory diseases
6 Conjunctivitis & Intraocular infections
7.Anaerobic infections
8.Ear infection
9.Infections where other antibiotics are not effective
10.In urinary tract infections

Interactions for Chloramphenicol
Dicoumarol, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Tolbutamide & Chlorpropamide: Efficacy enhanced when Chloramphenicol administered concomitantly since it inhibits the metabolism of these drugs.
Cyclophosphamide: Efficacy reduced.
Acetaminophen: Efficacy of Chloramphenicol potentiated leading to toxicity.
Iron salts and Vit. B12: Haematologic response decreased.
Penicillin: Decreases efficacy of penicillin and increases serum concenteration of chloramphenicol.
Rifampicin: Reduces serum chloramphenicol levels (hepatic enzyme induction).
Tricyclic Anti-Depressants: Blood levels and adverse effects increased.
Mannitol & Hydrochlorothiazide: Increases renal excretion of chloramphenicol.
Typical Dosage for Chloramphenicol
0.25 to 0.5gm four times daily or 50mg/kg/day
In severe infections & Meningitis: 100mg/kg/day four times daily
Maximum total dose: 28gm
25 to 50mg/kgm/day four times daily
In severe infections: 100mg/kg/day four times daily
Schedule of Chloramphenicol
Storage Requirements for Chloramphenicol
Store at a temperature range of 15 degree C to 30 degree C.

Effects of Missed Dosage of Chloramphenicol
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Chloramphenicol
Treatment is supportive & symptomatic. The drug is removed from the body by charcoal hemoperfusion

Home Delivery for Chloramphenicol in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including chloramphenicol.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for chloramphenicol and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for chloramphenicol may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take chloramphenicol only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for chloramphenicol before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for chloramphenicol with the pharmacy.

Chloramphenicol is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for chloramphenicol might be better known than chloramphenicol itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have chloramphenicol in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for chloramphenicol.