Nitrofurantoin Pharmacology


About Nitrofurantoin
Nitrofuran derivative antibiotic, Urinary germicide, Miscellaneous Antibiotic.
Mechanism of Action of Nitrofurantoin
Nitrofurantoin is a bacteriostatic drug. It undergoes enzymatic reduction and produces active metabolite which damages the DNA of the bacteria. Bacteria reduce Nitrofurantoin more rapidly than mammalian cells.
Pharmacokinets of Nitrofurantoin
Absorption: Nitrofurantoin is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: About 60% is distributed in protein bound form. It crosses the placenta
Metabolism: It is partially metabolised in the liver.
Excretion: Most of the drug is excreted mainly in the urine and small amount is excreted in breast milk.
Onset of Action for Nitrofurantoin
4-6 hours.
Duration of Action for Nitrofurantoin
6-12 hours.
Half Life of Nitrofurantoin
Side Effects of Nitrofurantoin
1. Diarrhea
2. Dyspepsia
3. Abdominal pain
4. Nausea
5. Vomiting
6. Constipation
7. Drowsiness
8. Pruritus
9. Urticaria
10. Alopecia
11. Fever
12. Chills
13. Malaise
14. Pancreatitis
15. Pseudomembranous colitis
16. Peripheral neuropathy
17. Asthenia
18. Vertigo
19. Nystagmus
20. Headcahe
21. Dizziness
22. Hepatitis
23. Pulmonary sensitivity reactions
24. Angioedema.
Contra-indications of Nitrofurantoin
1. Hypersensitivity to Nitrofurantoin
2. Severe renal impairment
3. Anuria
4. Oliguria
5. Creatinine clearance below 60ml/minute
Special Precautions while taking Nitrofurantoin
1. Renal impairment
2. Anaemia
3. Electrolyte abnormalities
4. Diabetes mellitus
5. Vitamin B deficiency
6. G6PD deficiency
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
May be used
NEONATES: Contraindicated
Indications for Nitrofurantoin
1. Urinary tract infection
Interactions for Nitrofurantoin
Antichlolinergic drugs: Bioavailability of nitrofurantoin increased due to delayed gastric emptying.
Probenecid: Decreased renal clearance and increased serum levels of nitrofurantoin resulting in toxicity.
Magnesium trisilicate: May delay or decrease the absorption of nitrofurantoin.
Food: Increases bioavailability of nitrofurantoin.
Lab tests: Serum glucose decreased. Elevated serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphates. Elevated urinary creatinine levels. False-positive urinary glucose using benedicts reagent.
Typical Dosage for Nitrofurantoin
Oral :
Adult: 200 - 400mg /day in 4 divided doses with food depending on the severity of infection dose is adjusted.
Long term suppression therapy: 50 - 100mg at bed time
Children above 12 year: same as adult dose.
Children 1 month - 12 years: 5 - 7 mg / kg body weight / day in 4 divided doses
Long term suppression therapy: 1 mg / kg / day at bed time
Schedule of Nitrofurantoin
Storage Requirements for Nitrofurantoin
Store at room temperature. Protect from heat and light. Keep out of the reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Nitrofurantoin
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Nitrofurantoin
Give supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Take plenty of fluid. In emergency condition dialysis can be done.

Home Delivery for Nitrofurantoin in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including nitrofurantoin.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for nitrofurantoin and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for nitrofurantoin may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take nitrofurantoin only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for nitrofurantoin before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for nitrofurantoin with the pharmacy.

Nitrofurantoin is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for nitrofurantoin might be better known than nitrofurantoin itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have nitrofurantoin in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for nitrofurantoin.