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- Pharmacology For Ethambutol + Isoniazid
Ethambutol + Isoniazid Pharmacology
Ethambutol + IsoniazidAbout Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AMechanism of Action of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/APharmacokinets of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AOnset of Action for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/ADuration of Action for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AHalf Life of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/ASide Effects of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AContra-indications of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AInteractions for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/ATypical Dosage for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/ASchedule of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AStorage Requirements for Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/AEffects of Overdose of Ethambutol + IsoniazidN/A
EthambutolAbout EthambutolEthylenediamine derivative, Antitubercular Agent(Cell envelope antibiotic).Mechanism of Action of EthambutolEthambutol is a bacteriostatic drug.It inhibits arabinogalactan synthesis and interfere mycolic acid incorporation in to the cell wall.Pharmacokinets of EthambutolAbsorption: About 70 % of the drug is rapidly absorbed after oral administration.Distribution: It is very widely distributed in the body.Metabolism: It undergoes metabolism in the liver.Excretion:It is excreted mainly through urine and also bile and breast milk.Onset of Action for EthambutolN/ADuration of Action for Ethambutol1 dayHalf Life of Ethambutol3 - 4 hourSide Effects of Ethambutol1. Optic neuritis
4. Abdominal pain
5. Gastric upset
7. Loss of colour vision
9. Mental confusion
11. Peripheral neuritis
12. Anaphylactoid reaction
16. MalaiseContra-indications of Ethambutol1. Optic neuritis
2. Hypersensitivity to Ethambutol
3. Children below 13 yearsSpecial Precautions while taking Ethambutol1. Renal impairment
2. Diabetic retinopathy
3. Eye inflammation
5. CataractPregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationUse with cautionChildren Related Informationcontraindicated in children below 13 year
Indications for EthambutolPulmonary tuberculosis in category 1 & 2 patientsInteractions for EthambutolAluminium salts: Absorption of ethambutol may be delayed or reduced.Typical Dosage for EthambutolAdult: 15 - 25 mg / kg/ body weight/day depending on the condition of the disease state
Children (above 13 year): 15 - 25 mg / kg/ body weight/day depending on the condition of the disease state.
Schedule of EthambutolHStorage Requirements for EthambutolEthambutol should be kept in a tightly closed container at room temperature. Keep away from heat and moisture.Effects of Missed Dosage of EthambutolTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time to take the next dose then skip the missed dose.Effects of Overdose of EthambutolGive supportive measures and treatment. Induce emesis or gastric lavage followed with charcoal administration.
IsoniazidAbout IsoniazidHydrazine derivative, Antitubercular Agent.Mechanism of Action of IsoniazidIsoniazid is a bactericidal drug. I t inhibits the mycolic acid synthesis which is essential for the cell wall formation. It also inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and cell metabolism. As the results of these bacterial death occurs.Pharmacokinets of IsoniazidAbsorption: It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration.Distribution: It is very widely distributed in the body.Metabolism: It undergoes metabolism in the liver.Excretion:It is mainly excreted through urine and small amount excreted through bile, breast milk, sputum and saliva.Onset of Action for Isoniazid1 - 2 daysDuration of Action for Isoniazid1 dayHalf Life of Isoniazid1 - 4 hourSide Effects of Isoniazid1. Nausea
3. Gastric upset
4. Peripheral neuritis
5. Optic neuritis
13.JaundiceContra-indications of Isoniazid1. Hypersensitivity to Isoniazide
2. Drug induced hepatic diseaseSpecial Precautions while taking Isoniazid1.Renal impairment
4.EpilepsyPregnancy Related InformationContraindicatedOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationUse with caution
Children Related InformationMay be used
NEONATES: may be used
Indications for Isoniazid1.Tuberculosis (pulmonary &extra pulmonary)Interactions for IsoniazidAlcohol: Regular ingestion of alcohol is associated with higher incidence of INH-related hepatitis.
Aluminium Salts: Oral absorption of INH reduced leading to decreased serum levels.
Oral anticoagulants: Efficacy of oral anticoagulants increased.
Benzodiazepines: Activity of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidative metabolism is possibly increased.
Carbamazepine: Isoniazid hepatotoxicity & carbamazepine toxicity may occur from concurrent use.
Cycloserine: Increased cycloserine related CNS side effects, especially dizziness.
Disulfiram: Acute behavioural and co-ordination changes.
Enflurane: High output renal failure may occur.
Halothane: Hepatotoxicity and hepatic encephalopathy.
Hydantoins: Serum hydantoin levels increased leading to enhanced pharmacological and toxic effects.
Ketoconazole: Serum concentrations of ketoconazole decreased possibly leading to resistance to antifungal treatment.
Rifampicin: Higher incidence of hepatotoxicity than with either agent alone.
Food: Interaction with tyramine-containing foods since INH has MAOI activity.
Exaggerated response (headache, palpitation, sweating, hypotension, flushing, itching) to foods containing histamine (tuna, sauerkraut juice, yeast extract).
Typical Dosage for IsoniazidAdult: 200 - 300 mg once daily for 6 months to 24 months depending on the severity of infection
Children:5 - 10 mg / kg body weight / day for 6 months to 24 months depending on the severity of infection.
Schedule of IsoniazidHStorage Requirements for IsoniazidThe drug should be stored at room temperature .Keep away from heat, light and moisture. The vial should be kept at 2 - 8 degree Celsius.Effects of Missed Dosage of IsoniazidTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Continue the regular schedule.Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of IsoniazidGive supportive measures and treatment. Control seizure by giving Diazepam. Then Pyridoxine is administered followed by gastric lavage. Acidosis can be treated with sodium bicarbonate by parenteral administration. Forced diuresis and dialysis can be done if necessary.
Home Delivery for Ethambutol + Isoniazid in Your City
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Please be aware that you should take ethambutol + isoniazid only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for ethambutol + isoniazid before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for ethambutol + isoniazid with the pharmacy.
Ethambutol + Isoniazid is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for ethambutol + isoniazid might be better known than ethambutol + isoniazid itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have ethambutol + isoniazid in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for ethambutol + isoniazid.