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- Pharmacology For Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-Complex
Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-Complex Pharmacology
Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexAbout Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AMechanism of Action of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/APharmacokinets of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AOnset of Action for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/ADuration of Action for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AHalf Life of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/ASide Effects of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AContra-indications of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/ASpecial Precautions while taking Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/APregnancy Related InformationN/AOld Age Related InformationN/ABreast Feeding Related InformationN/AChildren Related InformationN/AIndications for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AInteractions for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/ATypical Dosage for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/ASchedule of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AStorage Requirements for Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AEffects of Missed Dosage of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/AEffects of Overdose of Phenobarbitone + Vitamin B-ComplexN/A
PhenobarbitoneAbout PhenobarbitoneBarbiturate derivative, Sedative-Hypnotic,Anticonvulsant.Mechanism of Action of PhenobarbitoneSedative and antiepileptic actions: Phenobarbitone mainly acts on Picrotoxin site of GABA -BZD receptor Cl- (chloride ion) channel complex. It prolongs the duration of GABA induced chloride channel opening and produces hyperpolarisation and decreases firing rate of neurons. This will alters the normal body functions. Phenobarbitone also has GABA mimetic action. At high concentrations Phenobarbitone directly increases chloride ion conductance and decreases transmission of calcium ion (Ca2+ ) dependent neurotransmitters. Phenobarbitone also inhibits excitatory glutamate neurotransmitters. At high concentration it also inhibits sodium ion channel and potassium ion channel. Phenobarbitone is used as an antiepileptic to control partial and generalised tonic-clonic seizures.
Barbiturates activate inhibitory GABA-A receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors and produces CNS depression.
Pharmacokinets of PhenobarbitoneAbsorption: It is well absorbed after oral administration. Distribution: It is widely distributed in the body. Metabolism: It is metabolised in the liver. Excretion: It is excreted mainly through urine.Onset of Action for Phenobarbitone1 hourDuration of Action for Phenobarbitone10 - 12 hourHalf Life of Phenobarbitone5 - 7 daysSide Effects of Phenobarbitone1.Hang over
17.Exacerbation of Porphyria
18.DependnceContra-indications of Phenobarbitone1.Hypersensitivity to Phenobarbitone and other barbiturates
5.Obstructive sleeps apnoeaSpecial Precautions while taking Phenobarbitone1.Cardiovascular diseases
2.Patient with acute or chronic pain
5. Drug abuse
7. Debilitated patients
8. Driving vehicles, operating machines and people involving any other dangerous activities
9. Slowly withdraw the drug with caution
Pregnancy Related InformationUse with cautionOld Age Related InformationUse with cautionBreast Feeding Related InformationContraindicatedChildren Related InformationUse with cautionIndications for Phenobarbitone1.Anticonvulsant
2.Sedative.Interactions for PhenobarbitoneAlcohol & other CNS Depressants (other sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, antihistamines, tranquilizers, phenothiazines): Additive CNS depression.
Valproic acid: Increases efficacy of barbiturates. Half life of valproic acid may be decreased.
Chloramphenicol: Efficacy of barbiturates increased. Barbiturates may decrease efficacy of chloramphenicol.
MAOIs: Effects of barbiturates prolonged.
Efficacy of the following drugs decreased by barbiturates: Oral anticoagulants, digitoxin, TCAs, corticosteroids, doxycycline, oral contraceptives and estrogens, acetaminophen, beta-blockers, quinidine, rifampicin, theophylline and metronidazole.
Phenytoin: Effect on phenytoin metabolism is unpredictable.
Frusemide: May produce or aggravate orthostatic hypotension.
Griseofulvin: Interferes with absorption of oral griseofulvin leading to decreased blood levels.Typical Dosage for PhenobarbitoneAdult
Anticonvulsant (Not used for absence and febrile seizure): 60 - 180 mg / day at bed time or 3 divided doses
Sedation: 30 - 120 mg / day in 2 or 3 divided doses
Insomnia: 100 - 200 mg/ day
Maximum dose: 400 mg / day
Anticonvulsant: 1 - 8 mg / kg body weight / day in single dose or 2 divided dose.
Sedation: 8 - 32 mg/ day
Schedule of PhenobarbitoneX DRUGStorage Requirements for PhenobarbitoneStore at 15 - 25 degree C in a tightly closed container. Keep out of the reach of children.Effects of Missed Dosage of PhenobarbitoneTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time to take the next dose then skip the missed dose.Effects of Overdose of PhenobarbitoneGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Induce emesis or gastric lavage has to be done. Charcoal can be given to reduce the absorption of the drug. Urine alkalinization also helps to reduce the absorption of the drug. Haemodialysis can be done in severe cases.
Vitamin B-ComplexAbout Vitamin B-ComplexVitamin B-complex are group of vitamins, which include Thiamine (B1),Riboflavin (B2),Niacin (B3),Pantothenic acid (B5),Pyridoxine (B6),Cyanocobalamin (B12),Folic acid and Biotin.
These vitamins are essential for the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose (this provides energy for the body),the breakdown of fats and proteins (which aids the normal functioning of the nervous system),muscle tone in the stomach and intestinal tract,Skin,Hair,Eyes,Mouth and Liver
Mechanism of Action of Vitamin B-ComplexN/APharmacokinets of Vitamin B-ComplexN/AOnset of Action for Vitamin B-ComplexN/ADuration of Action for Vitamin B-ComplexN/AHalf Life of Vitamin B-ComplexN/ASide Effects of Vitamin B-Complex1.Drowsiness
5.Numbness of the skin
Contra-indications of Vitamin B-ComplexHypersensitivity to the ingredient of Vitamin B-complexSpecial Precautions while taking Vitamin B-Complex1.Pernecious anaemia
2.Patient receiving dialysisPregnancy Related InformationMay be used.Old Age Related InformationMay be used.Breast Feeding Related InformationMay be used.Children Related InformationMay be used.Indications for Vitamin B-Complex1.Vitamin deficiency states
2. As an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy
3. Combinations with lactobacillus are indicated in aphthous stomatitis, thrush.Interactions for Vitamin B-ComplexSulfinpyrazone: Uricosuric effect of sulfinpyrazone may be inhibited by niacin.
Levodopa: Pyridoxine reduces efficacy of levodopa. Avoid supplemental vitamins that contain greater then 5 mg pyridoxine in the daily dose.
Phenobarbital: Serum levels of Phenobarbital may be decreased if used concomitantly with pyridoxine.
Phenytoin: Pyridoxine decreases serum levels of phenytoin.
Dapsone: PABA antagonizes anti-malarial effect of dapsone.
Typical Dosage for Vitamin B-ComplexI tablet /daySchedule of Vitamin B-ComplexN/AStorage Requirements for Vitamin B-ComplexStore at room temperature. Keep out of the reach of children.Protect from heat, light and moisture.Effects of Missed Dosage of Vitamin B-ComplexTake the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose.Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.Effects of Overdose of Vitamin B-ComplexGive supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.
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