Alprazolam + Propranolol Pharmacology
Alprazolam + Propranolol
Alprazolam 0.25 mg + Propranolol 10 mg
Alprazolam 0.25 mg + Propranolol 20 mg
4. Slurred speech
6.Constipation or diarrhoea
2.Acute angle closure glaucoma
6.Driving vehicles and operating machines and people involving any other dangerous activities
2.Treatment of Panic disorder.
Aminophylline: Antagonizes the sedative effect.
Cimetidine, Oral contraceptives, Disulfiram, Fluoxetine, Isoniazid, Ketoconazole, Metoprolol, Propoxyphene, Propranolol,
Valproic Acid: Elimination of alprazolam decreased due to inhibition of hepatic metabolism leading to enhanced activity.
Digoxin: Increase in serum concentration of Digoxin.
Imipramine & Desipramine: Enhanced activity of these drugs.
Levodopa: Decrease in antiparkinsonism efficacy.
Rifampicine: Decreases efficacy.
Anxiety: 0.25 - 0.5 mg every 8 hours in a day. Depending on the severity of the disease the dose can be gradually increased every 3 or 4 days.
Maximum dose: 4 mg / day in divided dose.
Anxiety with depression: 0.5 mg every 8 hours in a day
Maintenance dose: 1.5 - 4.5 mg/ day in divided dose
Panic disorder: starting dose: 1.5 mg /day in 3 divided dose. Depending on the severity of the disease the dose can be gradually increased every 3 or 4 days.
Children: Not recommended
In sympathetic over activity, it prolongs systole by retarding conduction. It increases oxygen supply and exercise tolerance in angina patients. It decrease automaticity and abbreviates refractory period of myocardial fibers and decreases rate of depolarization in SA node, Purkinje fibers, and other ectoptic foci. Prolong effective refractory period of AV node and AV conduction is delayed. At higher doses direct depressant membrane stabilizing action is exerted. The drug decreases BP in hypertensive individuals. Initially total peripheral resistance increases due to blockade of beta mediated vasodilatation and decrease in cardiac output; so little change in BP. But when treatment is continued due to adaptation of resistance vessels to decreased cardiac output total peripheral resistance decreases and systolic and diastolic BP falls.
Antimigraine action: Propranolol is useful in migraine due to its beta blockade action. Through beta blockade action it inhibits vasodilation and relieves migraine.
Distribution: Widely distributed in a plasma protein bound form.
Metabolism: Metabolized in liver.
Excretion: Excreted through urine.
2.Decreases coronary blood flow
5.Decreases exercise capacity
6.Decreases carbohydrate tolerance
7.Decrease insulin release
8.Increases free fatty acid levels and increase LDL to HDL ratio
9.Worsens chronic obstructive lung diseases
15.Exacerbates prinzmetal`s angina
2.Second or third degree heart block
3.Congestive heart failure
6.Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
2.Ischaemic heart disease
3.Congestive heart failure
6. Diabetes mellitus
7. The drug should be gradually withdraw with caution
8. Non allergic bronchospastic diseases
10. Along with other antihypertensive drugs
6. Prophylaxis of myocardial infarction
9. Hypertrophic sub aortic stenosis
Rifampicin, Phenobarbital, NSAIDs, Thyroid hormones, Smoking: Decrease antihypertensive action of propranolol.
Corticosteroids: Antagonism of hypotensive effect.
Sympathomimetics: Marked hypertension and bradycardia.
Insulin: Hypoglycemic effects prolonged by propranalol and masking of symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetes.
Lidocaine: Increased levels of lidocaine may occur resulting in toxicity.
Calcium channel blockers: Severe bradycardia especially in those with impaired LV function.
Phenothiazines: Chlorpromazine increases plasma levels of propranolol.
Reserpine: Additive effect resulting in vertigo, syncope or postural hypotension.
Clonidine: May increase the postural hypotension. Severity of rebound hypertension caused by abrupt withdrawal of clonidine enhanced.
Haloperidol: Severe hypotension.
Prazosin: May increase first dose response (acute postural hypotension) of prazosin.
Theophylline: Propranolol antagonises effect of theophylline.
Alcohol: Enhanced hypotensive effect.
ACE inhibitors: Enhanced hypotensive effect.
Lab tests: May interfere with Glaucoma screening test due to reduction in intraocular pressure.
Hypertension: Starts with 80mg once daily or in 2 divided doses and gradually increases up to 320mg/day based on patient`s response in divided doses 12th hourly or 8th hourly.
Maximum daily dose: 640mg.
Sustained release formulations: 120 to 160mg/day. Once daily.
Children: 1mg/kg/day gradually increases to 4mg/kg/day based on patient`s response in 4 divided doses
Maximum dose: 5mg/kg/day.
Arrhythmias & Anxiety: 30mg to 150mg/day in 3 to 5 divided doses.
Children: 0.5 to 4mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses.
Angina: 40 to 80mg two times daily to 4 times daily.
Migraine: 80 to 120mg/day in divided doses in 12th hourly to 8th hourly. And gradually increases at 1 week intervals to 160mg/day.
Children: 1mg/kg/day four times daily and gradually increases up to 5mg/kg/day based on patient`s response.
Prophylaxis of myocardial infarction: Initiate the therapy with 20mg dose 5days after myocardial infarction. Then give doses of 40mg thrice daily and gradually increases at weekly intervals up to 80mg based on patients response.
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