Ephedrine Pharmacology


About Ephedrine
Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonist , Sympathomimetic amine, Stimulant, vasopressor(parenteral), bronchodilator.
Mechanism of Action of Ephedrine
Ephedrine is a mixed acting sympathomimetic drug which mainly acting indirectly but also has some direct action on alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. It causes release of nor-epinephrine from it`s storage sites and stimulates alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. It relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors and thus causes increased vital capacity, relief of mild bronchospasm, improved air exchange and decreased residual volume. Ephedrine produces cardiac stimulation with increased systolic and diastolic pressure when nor-epinephrine stores aren`t depleted. It produces positive inotropic effects with low doses through action on beta-1 receptors in heart. It causes vasodilatation through beta-2 receptors and vasoconstriction through alpha adrenergic receptors. Presser effects results from vasoconstriction, cardiac stimulation, and increased cardiac output. It produces nasal decongestant action by stimulating alpha receptors in blood vessels of nasal mucosa and causing vasoconstriction and nasal decongestion.
Pharmacokinets of Ephedrine
Absorption: Well absorbed after Oral, S.C., or I.M. administration.
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the body
Metabolism: Slowly metabolized in liver by oxidative deamination, demethylation, aromatic hydroxylation and conjugation.
Excretion: Excreted mainly through urine as unchanged drug.
Onset of Action for Ephedrine
Oral: 15 to 60 minutes
I.V.: 5minutes
I.M., S.C.: 10 to 20 minutes
Duration of Action for Ephedrine
Oral: 3 to 5 hours
I.V.: 60 minutes
I.M.: S.C.: 30 to 60 minutes
Half Life of Ephedrine
Side Effects of Ephedrine
1. Arrhythmias
2. Palpitations
3. Tachycardia
4. Hypertension
5. Precordial pain
6. Insomnia
7. Nervousness
8. Headahe
9. Dizziness
10. Confusion
11. Euphoria
12. Delirium
13. Mucosal irritation
14. Dry nose and throat
15. Nausea
16. Vomiting
17. Anorexia
18. Urine retention
19. Painful urination
20. Muscle weakness
21. Diaphoresis.
Contra-indications of Ephedrine
1. Hypersensitivity to the drug or other sympathomimetics
2. Severe coronary artery disease
3. Porphyria
4. Arrhythmias
5. Angina pectoris
6. Susstatial organic heart disease
7. Cardiovascular diseases
8. Angle closure glaucoma
9. Psychoneurosis
10. In those taking MAO inhibitors
Special Precautions while taking Ephedrine
1. Hypertension
2. Hyperthyroidism
3. Nervous or excitable states
4. Diabetes
5. Prostatic hyperplasia
6. Diabetes

Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Indications for Ephedrine
1. As nasal decongestant
2. As bronchodilator
3. Acute severe bronchospasm
4. Hypotension
5. Enuresis
Interactions for Ephedrine
Typical Dosage for Ephedrine
As bronchodilator or nasal decongestant:12.5 to 50mg at every 3 to 4 hours; as required. Do not exceed 150mg in 24 hours.
Orthostatic hypotension: 25mg 1 to 4 times daily as required.
Above 12 years:12.5 to 50mg at every 3 to 4 hours; as required. Do not exceed 150mg in 24 hours.
Age 6 to 12: 6.25 to 12.5mg every four hours. Do not exceed 75mg in 24 hours.
Children over 2 years: 2 to 3mg/kg/day in 4 to 6 divided doses.
Orthostatic hypotension: 3mg/kg/day divided in to 4 to 6 doses.
Enuresis: 25 to 50mg at bed time.
Nasal spray:
As nasal decongestant:
Adults and children over 12 years: 2 to 3 sprays to each nostril; not more than every four hours.
Children (age 6 to 12): 1 to 2 sprays to each nostril; not more than every four hours.
I.M., S.C., or I.V.:
Acute severe bronchospasm: 12.5 to 25mg I.M., S.C., or I.V.
Adults: 25 to 50mg S.C. or I.M., or 10 to 25mg as slow I.V. bolus. A second I.M. dose of 50mg or I.V. dose of 25mg is administered if required. Repeat I.V. doses in 5 to 10minutes if required.
Maximum dose: 150mg/day.
Children: 3mg/kg/day S.C. or I.V. divided in to 4 to 6 doses

Schedule of Ephedrine
Storage Requirements for Ephedrine
Store at controlled room temperature at a range of 15 to 30 degree C. in a well closed container. Protect from light.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Ephedrine
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Ephedrine
Provide supportive treatment and symptomatic measures. If patient is conscious induce emesis and reduce absorption by administration of activated charcoal. Perform gastric lavage if required. Maintain airway and blood pressure and closely monitor vital signs. Do not administer vasopressors. Beta blockers such as propranolol are used to treat arrhythmias. Use cardio selective beta blockers in asthmatic patients. Treat hypertension with Phentolamine, Seizures with paraldehyde or Diazepam, Pyrexia with seizures.

Home Delivery for Ephedrine in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including ephedrine.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for ephedrine and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for ephedrine may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take ephedrine only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for ephedrine before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for ephedrine with the pharmacy.

Ephedrine is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for ephedrine might be better known than ephedrine itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have ephedrine in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for ephedrine.