Calcium Pharmacology


About Calcium
Calcium is necessary for cardiac function, muscle contraction, nervous activity, coagulation of blood and for maintaining structural integrity of cell membranes.
Plasma concentration of calcium is kept in normal range by three endocrine factors which control metabolism of calcium. These are (a) Parathyroid hormone, (b) Calcitonin, (c) Vitamin D. Calcium in plasma is bound to albumin, is complexed with anions (e.g. phosphate) and as diffusible ionic calcium. The physiological effects are exerted by ionic calcium. The predominant source of calcium is dairy products and the daily intake varies from 200 - 2500 mg. Adequate calcium intake is particularly important during periods of bone growth in childhood and adolescence and during pregnancy and lactation.
Patients with advanced renal insufficiency exhibit phosphate retention and some degree of hyperphosphataemia. The retention of phosphate plays a pivotal role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with osteodystrophy and soft tissue calcification. Calcium acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form insoluble calcium phosphate which is excreted in the faeces.
Deficiency signs and symptoms: Osteoporosis, pathological fractures, brittle nails and hair.
Mechanism of Action of Calcium
Calcium is essential for maintaining the functional integrity of nervous, muscular, and skeletal system. It controls excitability of nerves and muscles and regulates permeability of cell membrane. It also regulates cell adhesion and maintains integrity of cell membrane. Calcium acts as intracellular messenger for hormones, autacoids, and transmitters. It is required for excitation-contraction coupling in all types of muscle and excitation-secretion coupling in exocrine and endocrine glands. It is essential for release of transmitters from nerve endings and other release reactions. It is also essential for impulse generation in heart and determines level of automaticity and
A-V conduction. Calcium is also required for blood-coagulation.
Pharmacokinets of Calcium
Absorption: Actively absorbed from gastrointestinal tract in an ionized form; and vitamin D in it`s active form is required for calcium absorption, Distribution: Distributed mainly in to skeletal tissue (99%) and 1% is distributed equally between the intracellular and extra cellular fluid. CSF levels are about half of the serum calcium levels, Metabolism: Not significantly metabolized in the body, Excretion: Excreted mainly through faeces and a small amount is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Calcium
Duration of Action for Calcium
Half Life of Calcium
Side Effects of Calcium
3.Excess gas
7.Abdominal pain
11.Dry mouth
Contra-indications of Calcium
1.Renal calculi
4.Ventricular fibrillation.
Special Precautions while taking Calcium
1.Renal impairment
2.Cardiac diseases
4.Cor pulmonale
5.Respiratory acidosis
6.Respiratory failure
7.End stage renal failure
8.Hypoparathyroid patients
9.Digitalized patients
10.Prolonged use of therapeutic amounts.
Pregnancy Related Information
Use with caution
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
May be used
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Indications for Calcium
2.Calcium and vitamin D deficiency
3.Calcium deficiency during pregnancy and lactation
5.Prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
6.Chronic renal failure.
Interactions for Calcium
Typical Dosage for Calcium
Oral: 500mg to 2g daily in two to four divided doses.
Adults: 1g daily. Increases to 2g daily if required.
Prevention of osteoporosis: 1 to 1.5g daily.
Children: 45 to 65mg/kg daily.
Neonates: 50 to 150mg/kg and should not exceed 1g.

Schedule of Calcium
Storage Requirements for Calcium
Store in a well closed container in a cool and dry place. Protect from light.

Effects of Missed Dosage of Calcium
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Calcium
Remove calcium from stomach by induced emesis and gastric lavage. Provide symptomatic treatment and supportive measures.

Home Delivery for Calcium in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including calcium.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for calcium and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for calcium may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take calcium only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for calcium before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for calcium with the pharmacy.

Calcium is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for calcium might be better known than calcium itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have calcium in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for calcium.