Ketamine Pharmacology


About Ketamine
Dissociative anesthetic, I.V.General anesthetic.
Mechanism of Action of Ketamine
It reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically by acting on cortex and limbic system. This state of sensory deprivation and dissociation can facilitate self exploration, hallucinations, and dreamlike states of mind which resemble psychedelic mind states.
Pharmacokinets of Ketamine
Absorption- Well and rapidly absorbed after intramuscular and intravenous administration.
Distribution- Widely distribute in the body. Rapidly entered into the CNS. 20-50% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism- It is metabolized into its metabolites in the liver by hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, Glucoronide conjugation. Norketamine is its pharmacologically active metabolite.
Excretion- It is excreted through urine.
Onset of Action for Ketamine
Intravenous- 30 second
Intramuscular- 3 to 4 minutes
Duration of Action for Ketamine
Intravenous- 5 to 10 minutes
Intramuscular- 12 to 25 minutes
Half Life of Ketamine
Side Effects of Ketamine
1. Hallucination
2. Confusion
3. Excitement
4. Dreamlike states
5. Irrational behaviour
6. Hypertension
7. Hypotension
8. Arrhythmia
9. Diplopia
10. Nystagmus
11. Laryngospasm
12. Tachycardia
13. Bradycardia
14. Nausea
15. Vomiting
16. Excessive salivation
17. Apnoea
18. Measles like rash
Contra-indications of Ketamine
1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
2. Schizophrenia
3. Acute psychosis
4. Cardiovascular diseases
Special Precautions while taking Ketamine
1. Drug to be given by trained anesthetics
2. Monitor pulse and blood pressure closely
3. Respiratory depressant patients
4. Alcohol dependant
5. Treatment with sedatives
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
May be used .
Breast Feeding Related Information
Use with caution
Children Related Information
May be used
Indications for Ketamine
1. Analgesia for painful procedure of short duration (subanaesthetic dose).e.g. marrow sampling, dressing of burns
2. Induction of anaesthesia prior to inhalational anaesthetics
3. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia for short lasting diagnostic and surgical procedures e.g. dental procedures
3. Angiography (with diazepam)
4. Trauma surgery
5. Cardiac catheterization
Interactions for Ketamine
Barbiturates or narcotics: Prolonged recovery time may occur.
Halothane: Blocks cardiovascular stimulatory effects of ketamine leading to decreased cardiac output, blood pressure & pulse rate.
Tubocurarine and non-depolarizing muscle relaxants: Increased neuromuscular effects, leading to prolonged respiratory depression.
Thyroid hormones: Concurrent use may produce hypertension and tachycardia.
Aminophylline: Reduces seizure threshold.
Alcohol: Resistance to ketamine anaesthesia; exaggerated psychosomatic effects during recovery from anaesthesia.
Oxytocin, Ergometrine: Potentiate cardiovascular adverse effects.
Benzodiazepines: Reduced incidence of and severity of psychotomimetics and cardiovascular responses.
Typical Dosage for Ketamine
1-4.5mg/kg (average: 2mg/kg).
6.5-13mg/kg (average:10 mg/kg).
Maintenance : Increment of 50% of the full induction dose repeatedly.
Schedule of Ketamine
Storage Requirements for Ketamine
Store at controlled temperature (<30 degree C).
Effects of Missed Dosage of Ketamine
Effects of Overdose of Ketamine
Give symptomatic and supportive treatment. Provide supportive ventilation to the patient.

Home Delivery for Ketamine in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including ketamine.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for ketamine and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for ketamine may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take ketamine only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for ketamine before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for ketamine with the pharmacy.

Ketamine is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for ketamine might be better known than ketamine itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have ketamine in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for ketamine.