Chlorhexidine Pharmacology


About Chlorhexidine
A bisbiguanide antimicrobial agent, Anti-infective, antiseptic.
Mechanism of Action of Chlorhexidine
This drug has positive charge so it attach to the negative charge cell wall. This destabilizes and destroys the integrity and penetrates bacterial cell membranes. It results precipitation of the cytoplasm and interferes with membrane function by inhibiting oxygen utilization leading to a decrease in cellular ATP levels and cell death. In gram-negative bacteria, chlorhexidine affects the outer membrane allowing the release of periplasmic enzymes. The inner membrane of these organisms is not ruptured but the uptake of small molecules is impaired. At low concentrations chlorhexidine exhibits a bacteriostatic effect while at high concentrations it is bactericidal.
Pharmacokinets of Chlorhexidine
Absorption- Poorly from the gastrointestinal tract.
Distribution- 87% bound to the plasma proteins.
Excretion- Excreted through feces.
Onset of Action for Chlorhexidine
Duration of Action for Chlorhexidine
Half Life of Chlorhexidine
Side Effects of Chlorhexidine
1. Bleeding
2. Tender
3. Enlarged gums
4. Cough
5. Congestion or tightness in chest
6. Wheezing
7. Staining of teeth
8. Calculus formation above the gum line
Contra-indications of Chlorhexidine
1. Hypersensitivity to the drug
Special Precautions while taking Chlorhexidine
1. Avoid eating or drinking for at least 1 hour after each dose
2. To minimize the staining apply drug with the hollow cup brush tip of the Rota-dent perio tool to only the gum tissue, especially focus on the areas with pockets depths over 4mm
3. You may also alternate drug with custom bleaching trays at home
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Indications for Chlorhexidine
1. Gingivitis
2. Acute and chronic otitis externa (ear infection/inflammation)
3. Periodontal disease
4. Superficial skin infections
5. Irrigation (cleansing) of wounds and as a medicated shampoo for the treatment of certain skin conditions (hot spots or acute moist dermatitis
Interactions for Chlorhexidine
Typical Dosage for Chlorhexidine
Oral rinse solutions - 0.1 percent.
Otic (ear) solutions - 1 percent.
Chlorhexidine solutions - 2 percent.
Chlorhexidine shampoo and conditioner 1 and 2 percent.
As an ear-cleansing agent - flush the ear canal once a day in cases of diagnosed otitis externa.
For skin conditions - clean the area twice daily.
For gingivitis - Chlorhexidine oral solution is applied as directed once a day. In the morning brush and floss for 2 minutes and than rinse with Chlorhexidine for 30 seconds.
Use 1/2 fl. oz. of undiluted. Swish in mouth for 30 seconds. After rinsing for 30 seconds be sure to spit out all the rinse, do NOT swallow any of the rinse. To minimize medicinal taste, DO NOT rinse with water immediately after use. In the evening brush and floss and rinse again for 30 seconds.
Chlorhexidine shampoo and conditioner - once or twice a week.
Pellet (extended-release), Periochip (in a biodegradable matrix of hydrolyzed gelatin cross-linked with glutaraldehyde), Cream, Dressing, Gel, Lotion, Ointment, Sponge forms are also available.
Schedule of Chlorhexidine
Storage Requirements for Chlorhexidine
Store at room temperature below 77 degree F. Do not freeze.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Chlorhexidine
Take any missed dose as soon as possible but not if it is almost time for the next dose. If it is time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your regular schedule. Do not "double-up" the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Chlorhexidine
Give symptomatic and supportive treatment.

Home Delivery for Chlorhexidine in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including chlorhexidine.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for chlorhexidine and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for chlorhexidine may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take chlorhexidine only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for chlorhexidine before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for chlorhexidine with the pharmacy.

Chlorhexidine is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for chlorhexidine might be better known than chlorhexidine itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have chlorhexidine in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for chlorhexidine.