Ethanol Pharmacology


About Ethanol
Alcohol(a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid), Sedative, Disinfectant,preservative.
Mechanism of Action of Ethanol
Alcohol promotes GABAA receptor mediated synaptic inhibition and inhibits NMDA and kainite type of excitatory amino acid receptors. It also causes augmentation of action of serotonin (5-HT) on 5HT3 inhibitory autoreceptor. It indirectly reduces neurotransmitter release by inhibiting voltage sensitive neuronal calcium channels. It also blocks adenosine uptake which could also contribute to the synaptic depression. It enhances turnover of nor-adrenaline in brain through an opioid receptor dependent mechanism which results in pleasurable effects. It also alters activity of membrane bound enzymes like Na+K+ATPase and adenylyl cyclase.
Alcohol possesses mild rubefacient and counterirritant action on skin. It also acts as an astringent and antiseptic on skin. It precipitates bacterial proteins. It acts as respiratory stimulant in collapse. It irritates buccal and pharyngeal mucosa and causes transient reflex stimulation of respiration. Mild to moderate amount of alcohol has been raises HDL level and reduce LDL oxidation. Blood concentration of Ethanol 100mg/dl saturates alcohol dehydrogenase and retards Methanol metabolism and thus effective in methanol poisoning.
Pharmacokinets of Ethanol
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed from intestine, Distribution: Widely distributed in the body, crosses the blood brain barrier and placenta, Metabolism: It is oxidized in liver up to 98%, Excretion: Excreted through kidney and lungs.
Onset of Action for Ethanol
Duration of Action for Ethanol
Half Life of Ethanol
Side Effects of Ethanol
After systemic use:
1.CNS depression
2.Mood changes
3.Mental clouding
4.Impairment of memory
5.Disorganisation of thought
7.Raise in BP
8.Fall in BP
10.Vasomotor centre depression
11.Myocardial depression
14.Respiratory depression
16.Mucosal congestion
18.Acute pancreatitis
19.Cellular necrosis in liver
20.Glutathione depletion
23.Incresed fatty acid synthesis in liver
Contra-indications of Ethanol
(For systemic use):
1.Peptic ulcer
2.Gastroesophageal reflux disease and hyperacidity
4.Hepatic impairment

Special Precautions while taking Ethanol
1.Do not engage in driving or other hazardous activities requiring mental alertness
2.Safe limits are lower for women
3.Along with other medications
Pregnancy Related Information
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Children Related Information
Indications for Ethanol
1. Antiseptic
2.Rubefacient and counterirritant for sprains, joint pains etc
3.Prevention of bed sores
4.As ingredient of antiperspirant and aftershave lotion
5.As alcoholic sponges to reduce body temperature in fever
6.Prevent cold
7.Ingredient of cough mixtures
8.As Appetite stimulant and carminative
9.Methanol poisoning
Interactions for Ethanol
Typical Dosage for Ethanol
Antiseptic: 70 to 90% Ethanol rubbed on skin surface. Should not apply; on mucous membrane, delicate skin, ulcers etc.
Appetite stimulant and carminative: 30 to 50ml of 7 to 10% ethanol is taken as beverages or tinctures before meals.
Methanol poisoning: Ethanol 10% in water is administered through a nasogastric tube; a loading dose of 0.7ml/kg is followed by 0.15ml/kg/hour drip. Continue the treatment for several days.
Schedule of Ethanol
Storage Requirements for Ethanol
Store in a well closed container at a cool and dry place. Protect from heat and light. Keep out of reach of children.
Effects of Missed Dosage of Ethanol
Take the missed dose as soon as noticed and if it is the time for next dose then skip the missed dose. Continue the regular schedule. Do not double the dose.
Effects of Overdose of Ethanol
Treatment is supportive and symptomatic. Remove alcohol by gastric lavage. Maintain patent airway and takes steps to prevent aspiration of vomitus. If respiratory depression is marked positive pressure respiration is needed. Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. Correct hypoglycaemia by glucose infusion till alcohol is metabolized. Recovery can be hastened by haemodialysis.

Home Delivery for Ethanol in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including ethanol.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for ethanol and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for ethanol may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take ethanol only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for ethanol before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for ethanol with the pharmacy.

Ethanol is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for ethanol might be better known than ethanol itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have ethanol in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for ethanol.