Metoprolol + Hydrochlorothiazide Pharmacology
Metoprolol + Hydrochlorothiazide
It have negative chronotropic and negative inotropic effects on heart. It decreases oxygen consumption; cardiac work and aortic pressure It decreases nor adrenaline and renin releases. It decreases central sympathetic out flow. In sympathetic over activity, it prolongs systole by retarding conduction. It increases oxygen supply and exercise tolerance in angina patients. The drug decreases BP in hypertensive individuals.
Antimigraine action: Metoprolol is useful in migraine due to its beta blockade action. Through beta blockade action it inhibits vasodilation and relieves migraine.
2.Second or third degree heart block
3.Congestive heart failure
3.The drug should be gradually withdraw with caution
5.Prophylaxis of myocardial infarction
Thyroid hormones: Decreased efficacy of metoprolol.
Benzodiazepines: Increased efficacy of benzodiazepines.
Clonidine: Abrupt withdrawal of clonidine may lead to hypertensive crisis.
Ergot alkaloids: Peripheral ischaemia, possible peripheral gangrene.
Lidocaine: Increased lidocaine level may occur leading to toxicity.
Prazosin: Increased postural hypotension produced by parzosin.
Sulphonylureas: Hypoglycaemic effects may be attenuated.
Adult: 50 to 450mg/day
Hypertension: Starts with 50mg to 100mg/day once daily or in divided doses and gradually increases up to 450mg/day based on patient`s response
Oral: 100mg to 150mg/day in 2 to 3 divided doses
I.V.: Dose range: 10 to 15mg. Starts with 5mg infused within 5minutes. Then repeat the therapy with the same dose at every 5minutes interval based on patient`s response
Maximum dose: 20mg
Angina: 50mg twice daily, gradually increases based on patient`s response at one week intervals
Maximum dose: 0.4gm/day
Migraine: 0.1 to 0.2gm/day in divided doses in 12th hourly to 6th hourly.
Prophylaxis of myocardial infarction: 0.1 to 0.2gm/day in divided doses
Myocardial infarction: 15mg in 3divided doses at 2minutes interval as I.V.bolus administration. Then 200mg orally in four divided doses for 2days.
Vertigo: Diuretics are used in vertigo in assumption that vertigo is due to endolymphatic hydrops. They reduce labyrinthine fluid pressure
Metabolism: It is not metabolized in the body.
Excretion: Excreted unchanged in urine.
2. Blurred vision
4. Tingling fingers
5. Dry mouth
14. Elevated levels of glucose, calcium and lipids
15. Gastro intestinal disturbances
17. Electrolyte imbalance
24. Muscle cramps
26. Blood dyscrasias
2. Hyper calcaemia
3. Renal impairment
4. Hepatic impairment
6. Hypersensitivity to the drug
7. Hyper sensitivity to sulfonamides
8. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
2. Diabetes mellitus
3. Renal impairment
4. Hepatic impairment
5. Monitor and correct Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
6. Hyper parathyroidism
2. Oedema associated with heart failure
3. Oedema due to renal and hepatic diseases
4. Diabetes insipidus
5. Idiopathic hypercalciurea.
Diazoxide: Additive action - may cause hyperglycemia, hyperuricaemia and hypotension.
Digitalis: Diuretics induced hypokalaemia may precipitate digitalis toxicity.
Lithium: Hydrochlorothiazide potentiates therapeutic and toxic effects by increasing its renal excretion.
Frusemide: Synergy leading to profound diuresis and greater than predicted electrolyte loss.
Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants: Diuretics induced hypokalaemia enhances efficacy.
Sulfonylureas: Efficacy decreased due to hydrochlorothiazide induced glucose intolerance.
Propantheline: Bioavailability of hydrochlorothiazide increased.
Metoclopramide: Bioavailability of hydrochlorothiazide decreased.
NSAIDs: Natriuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide decreased.
Hypertension: 25mg once daily or in divided doses. Increased to 50mg if required; depending up on the patient`s response.
Children: 1mg/kg single daily dose.
Starts with 25 to 50mg. Increased the dose until desired response is obtained.
Maximum dose: 200mg/day
Maintenance dosage: 25 to 100mg daily or on alternate days.
Children: 1mg/kg single daily dose or 1 to 3mg/kg/day in two divided doses
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