Sodium Bicarbonate Pharmacology

Sodium Bicarbonate

About Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium compound, Systemic Antacid ,alkalinizer.
Mechanism of Action of Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate in water dissociates to sodium (Na+) and bicarbonate (HCO3 -) ions. Sodium (Na+) is the principal cation of the extracellular fluid and it maintains fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Bicarbonate (HC03 -) is a normal constituent of body fluids. Plasma concentration is regulated by the kidney through acidification of the urine when there is a deficit or by alkalinization of the urine when there is an excess. Bicarbonate anion is considered ``labile`` since at a proper concentration of hydrogen ion (H+) it may be converted to carbonic acid (H2CO3) and hence to its volatile form, carbon dioxide (CO2) which is excreted by the lung.
Sodium bicarbonate can neutralize or reduce acids in the blood, or urine. It is also used in emergency medical situations (heart attacks, serious kidney or lung problems) to correct the normal acid-base balance in the blood or as an aid in treating overdoses with certain types of medications.Intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy increases plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, raises blood pH and reverses the clinical manifestations of acidosis.
Sodium bicarbonate is used in a serious condition called metabolic acidosis. This is when the acidity of blood and tissues is abnormally high. It arises when the body`s normal acid balancing mechanisms fail, for example, in cardiac arrest or severe kidney disease. Sodium bicarbonate neutralises the excess acid.
Pharmacokinets of Sodium Bicarbonate
Absorption: Sodium bicarbonate is well absorbed and reabsorbed after parenteral administration in ionized forms.
Excretion: Less than 1% is excreted in urine.
Onset of Action for Sodium Bicarbonate
Duration of Action for Sodium Bicarbonate
Half Life of Sodium Bicarbonate
Side Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate
1. Gastric disturbances
2. Belching
3. Flatulence
4. Hypernatraemia
5. Alkalosis
6. Pain at the site of injection
7. Venous irritation
8. Chemical cellulites
9. Ulceration
10. Tissue necrosis at the site of infiltration confusion
11. Swelling of the feet and legs
Contra-indications of Sodium Bicarbonate
1. Metabolic alkalosis
2. Respiratory alkalosis
3. Patients losing chlorides by vomiting or from continuous suction
4. Patient on diuretics which produces hypochloremic alkalosis
5. Hypocalcaemia in which alkalosis may produce tetany
6. Hypertension
7. Seizure
8. Heart failure
6. Hypernatreamia
Special Precautions while taking Sodium Bicarbonate
1. Renal impairment
2. Edema with sodium retention
3. Oliguria
4. Cushing`s syndrome
5. Dehydration
6. Heart problems
7. Hyperventilation
8. Low blood levels of calcium or potassium
9. Ulcers in the esophagus
Pregnancy Related Information
Use with caution
Old Age Related Information
Use with caution
Breast Feeding Related Information
Use with caution
Children Related Information
Use with caution
Indications for Sodium Bicarbonate
1. Metabolic acidosis
2. Severe diarrhoea
3. Urine alkalinization
Interactions for Sodium Bicarbonate
The renal clearance of the following agents may be :
a) increased - Chlorpropamide, lithium, methotrexate, salicylate, tetracycline.
b) decreased - Anorexients, quinidine, sympathomimetics.
Incompatibility : Avoid adding sodium bicarbonate to parenteral solution containing calcium, precipitation may result. Norepinephrine and dobutamine are incompatible.
Typical Dosage for Sodium Bicarbonate
In cardiac arrest: 200 - 300 mEq of a 7.5 - 8.4 % solution as rapidly as possible and in emergency inject 300 - 500 ml of 5% solution.
Metabolic acidosis: 90 - 180 mEq/L as IV during first hour and then adjust the dose depending on patients response.
Urinary alkalization: 0.325 - 2 g in 3- 4 times daily for patients above 60 years maximum dose is 8g and in patients below 60 years is 17 g.
Children: 1 - 10 mEq/kg / day
Children up to two years of age: 1 mEq / kg IV bolus of 4.2% solution and dose may be repeated every 10 minutes. Maximum daily dose: 8 mEq/ kg
Schedule of Sodium Bicarbonate
Storage Requirements for Sodium Bicarbonate
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C Do not freeze. Keep out of the reach of children
Effects of Missed Dosage of Sodium Bicarbonate
Do not apply
Effects of Overdose of Sodium Bicarbonate
Give supportive measures and symptomatic treatment. Correct the electrolyte balance. Ammonium chloride can be given in severe alkalosis.

Home Delivery for Sodium Bicarbonate in Your City

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However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for sodium bicarbonate and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for sodium bicarbonate may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take sodium bicarbonate only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for sodium bicarbonate before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for sodium bicarbonate with the pharmacy.

Sodium Bicarbonate is a generic medicine name and there are several brands available for it. Some of the brands for sodium bicarbonate might be better known than sodium bicarbonate itself. If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have sodium bicarbonate in stock, you can ask for one of the branded alternatives for sodium bicarbonate.